Prosjektstyring, prosjektutvikling og medvirkning
Prosjektstyring, prosjektutvikling og medvirkning
Prosjektstyring som fag har utviklet seg, først til en lederskapsprofesjon på 1980 tallet, og etter hvert til et verdiskapingsspørsmål etter år 2000. Den klassiske definisjonen av prosjektstyring – å bygge opp, vedlikeholde og bygge ned en midlertidig organisasjon for å styre et målrettet tiltak innenfor rammene av tid, kostnad og kvalitet er fortsatt aktuell, men i tillegg kommer også den strategiske dimensjonen, det å forstå hvordan prosjektet blir til, hvordan det formes i en dynamisk og kompleks situasjon, og hvordan forutsetningene for et vellykket prosjekt må utvikles og omsettes i et rammeverk for overordnet styring.
Campusprosjektet er komplekst og krevende og vil utfordre alle deler av prosjektorganisasjonen – fra eierne og premissgiverne ned til de aktørene som leverer spesifikke bidrag, enten gjennom sin spesialkompetanse eller i form av konkrete fysiske eller digitale løsninger. Kunnskap og evner til å kommunisere, motivere og samhandle med et bredt spekter av profesjoner og spesialkompetanser i og rundt prosjektoppgavene er i den forbindelse fundamentale kompetanser. Hvor gode er vi til å forstå hva som representerer verdiskaping, og til å skrelle vekk det unødvendige, veie ulike hensyn mot hverandre og leve med store og raske endringer over lenger tidsperioder? Dette er det moderne prosjektledelse handler om, og det er nettopp slike utfordringer vi kjenner igjen i campusprogrammet. Dette gjør campusprogrammet til en fantastisk mulighet for forskning og utvikling på det som opptar alle involverte, både lokalt, nasjonalt og internasjonalt.
Vi har også samlet relevante studentoppgaver fra NTNU og andre universiteter som tar for seg ulike aspekter ved campusutvikling.
Gohari, S. (2019). Governance in the Planning and Decision-Making Process. The Co-Location Case of University Campuses in Trondheim, Norway (2000-2013) [Doctoral dissertation]. NTNU.
The co-location of NTNU campuses in Trondheim has involved many different and contrasting political interests and power relations that has undermined the process of decision-making and planning for more than 20 years. The essence of this thesis was distilled from the general assumption that network governance, which is based on the negotiation and collaboration rationality, can overcome the limitations of anarchic market exchange and top-down planning and decision-making.
The main research question was ‘how the governance structure and process have influenced campus development in Trondheim from 2000 to 2013’. The thesis tried to empirically address the complex, non-linear and multi-layered processes of NTNU’s co-location case, using and integrating different theoretical-analytical models, including ‘structural-functionalism’ and ‘rounds model of decision-making’ to explain and illuminate why the co-location was stopped in 2006 and thereafter approved in 2013. This thesis represents an embedded single case study, which looked at three levels of governance: understructure and superstructure, referring to ‘university governance’, and middle structure or ‘urban governance’. Accordingly, the research objective was to analyze ‘governance structures’, i.e. the way actors stand in a network and interact with each other across levels, together with ‘governance processes’, i.e. the interrelation between actors’ attributes (such as interests, resource, power and roles) at different levels and rounds of decision-making. Interviews, archival records and documentation were the main research methods and the units of analysis were the individual and collective actors’ discourses and artefacts.
Heijer, A. C. den. (2011). Managing the University Campus: Information to Support Real Estate Decisions. Eburon Academic Publishers.
In the past decade managing the university campus has become more complex and challenging, with many more stakeholders, opportunities and threats to consider. Decreasing public involvement and funding for universities puts pressure on the internal allocation of resources, comparing investments in real estate with investments in human resources. This urges the need for evidence-based management information to support campus decision-making. At the same time the university campus is aging, both technically and functionally, and in need of reinvestment, while many developments cause more uncertainty in future space demand. On top of that, various stakeholders make higher demands upon the added value of the campus for the performance of the university and for the regional knowledge economy. This research focused on information to support campus decisions. The dissertation covers a wide range of topics on campus management: from generating references for planning purposes – like current replacement costs and new space standards for the changing academic workplace – to strategies for the sustainable campus and new models that merge the campus and the knowledge city. The book includes profiles of fourteen Dutch campuses and forty campus projects to illustrate trends. The content of this book combines insights from theory – adding to new real estate management theories and the required management information for real estate decisions – and lessons for practice. The book can support the decisions of policy makers, architects, campus and facility managers about the campus of the future.
Kim, T. W., Cha, S. H., & Kim, Y. (2016). A Framework for Evaluating User Involvement Methods in Architectural, Engineering, and Construction Projects. Architectural Science Review, 59(2), 136–147.
Architects can hardly evaluate and compare different user involvement methods and choose appropriate ones for their projects unless they have a framework that connects theoretical concepts of user involvement with practical methods. This paper seeks to develop such a framework that satisfies the following four characteristics: (1) architectural, engineering, and construction (AEC) project context; (2) direct mapping of the methods; (3) including virtual users as computational agents; and (4) the architect's perspective. This paper then reviews seven user involvement methods that are used in practice and classifies them using the framework. As a result, two challenges of existing methods are discovered under this framework: most methods in practice involve users indirectly, and the construction phase still lacks formalized user involvement methods. Thus, the use of virtual design and construction is proposed to address such challenges. This research contributes a framework that connects theories of user involvement with the practical methods to AEC projects.
Williams, T.M., Samset, K., & Volden, G.H. (Eds.). (2022). The Front-end of Large Public Projects: Paradoxes and Ways Ahead (1st ed.). Routledge.
Large public projects represent major complex investment and whilst there has been much written about how to develop, manage and deliver such projects, practice still does not match up with expectations. In this book, researchers from the Norwegian Concept Research Programme explore the paradoxes between theory and practice in collaboration with experts in the field of project governance.
This book delves into the reality of large public projects, to show how they can be managed effectively and efficiently, recognising the realities of their context. It offers a range of practical conclusions as to the paradoxes of the governance and management of public projects. The international spectrum of authors draw their examples from the UK, Norway, Canada, France, Australia and the Netherlands.
Bridging the gap between research, theory and practice, this book will benefit academics and researchers in the field of project management and corporate governance as well as those in the practice of public project governance, civil servants and industry practitioners.
Hajizadeh, S. (2023). From Ambition to Occupancy. Identifying Early Phase Activities Contributing to Use Value in Occupancy Phase of Building Projects: Case Studies of Energy Academy Europe, Groningen, and ZEB Laboratory, Trondheim. [Master's thesis, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering].
This thesis focuses on the value creation in construction projects, particularly in relation to value for users during the occupancy phase. The research aims to identify key activities or factors in the early phases of building projects that contribute to use value creation. Two case studies, the ZEB Laboratory in Trondheim, Norway, and the Energy Academy Europe building in Groningen, the Netherlands, were conducted using a mixed-methods approach combining interviews with key stakeholders for both case studies, and post occupancy evaluation survey and walkthrough for ZEB Laboratory project. The results of the study highlight ten key activities/factors that contribute to successful building realization, including defining clear goals and objectives, user involvement, effective communication methods, collaborative project delivery models, building trust, utilization of low technological methods, visualization, involving experts in building physics, flexibility in design, and team building. A post-occupancy evaluation of the ZEB Laboratory indicates a generally high level of user satisfaction with the building’s performance and use value. Feedback from occupants suggests areas for improvement such as air quality, ventilation, and technical functionality, while also providing valuable insights for future enhancements and updates to the building’s design. This research contributes to the existing knowledge by bridging the gap between early phase activities and use value. It provides insights into early phase activities, conducts a comprehensive post-occupancy evaluation, and derives lessons and recommendations from the case studies. The findings emphasize the importance of use value and value co-creation for in building projects, offering valuable guidance for future endeavors in creating optimal work and research environments within NTNU campus.