About the family

Latreille, 1802

This family consists of 21 genera and 299 species (2 genera and 2 species are extinct and not listed below) [Updated 05.06.15], and have representatives in Africa, Asia, Australia, North America, Central and South America.

Some of the world's largest scorpions belong to this family, and because of this some members of this family are very common in the pet industry (e.g. Pandinus imperator and Heterometrus spp.). The largest species known thus far are Heterometrus swammerdami from India and Sri Lanka and Pandinus imperator, which can reach lengths between 15 and 20 cm and up to 32 g mass.

The members of this family have a pentagonal sternum and very powerful, broad pedipalps (especially the hands [chelae] of the pedipalps). The scorpionids occupy savannahs, humid forests and rainforests, but some (like Scorpio and many of the Diplocentrids) are found in drier habitats.

Most species in this family are considered to be relatively harmless, but a serious case has been reported for Heterometrus. A few serious cases involving the genus Nebo in the Middle East have also been reported. See species file for more information.

In a revision of the higher scorpion systematics, Soleglad & Fet (2003) abolished the family Diplocentridae and included all genera into Scorpionidae. They are closly related to the Scorpionidae, but can be seperated from these by the presence of a subaculear spine on the telson (the Scorpionids lack this feature). Diplocentrids are located in North America (Mexico, Southwestern USA [Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona]), Central America (Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua) and South America (Colombia, Venezuela), Caribbean (Greater & Lesser Antilles), Asia (Egypt, Iran, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Oman, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Yemen).

The genus Urodacus was transfered from the abolished family Urodacidae by Soleglad, Fet & Kovarik in April 2005.

Synonyms and subspecies in the genus Opistophthalmus was revised by Lorenzo Prendini in 2001 (Prendini, L. A review of synonyms and subspecies in the genus Opistophthalmus C. L. Koch (Scorpiones: Scorpionidae). African Entomology, 9 (1), pp. 17-48)

Genus Pandinus was revised by Rossi in 2015. See The Scorpion Files News Blog for more details.

The genus Heterometrus was revised by Kovarik in December 2004. The paper has an identification key. The complete paper is available here (free pdf file).

Lourenco, 2009 have reanalyzed the genus Scorpio and given speciesstatus to several taxa. Other subspecies have been investigated by Talal et al., 2015 and given subspecies status. See Family Updates for details.

Scorpio maurus photo (left) by Jeff Dawson (C).
Pandinus imperator
photo (right) by Jan Ove Rein (C).

This list of genera and species is based on Fet et al.(2000). Subspecies is not included in the list. I try to update the list as additions and changes are published. * denotes changes after Fet et al. (2000). I will be grateful for information about new development in the taxonomy of this family. For information about synonyms and bibliographies, see Fet et al. (2000)
See also Soleglad & Fet (2003) for more information. Fulltext freely available HERE (issue 11).

Aops Volschenk & Prendini, 2008*!
A. oncodactylus Volschenk & Prendini, 2008*!
!The family Urodacidae was abolished by Soleglad, Fet & Kovarik in 2005 and the subfamily Urodacinae was transfered to Scorpionidae. Volschenk & Prendini have not accepted this deccision (more information about this), and retained the family Urodacidae (and placed the new genus and species in this family because of its close relationship to Urodacus). The taxonomy of The Scorpion Files follows Soleglad & Fet (2005), and I have here listed Aops in Scorpionidae. This is formally not correct, but is the best choice in the current situation until a new revision on higher scorpion systematics is published.
Bioculus Stahnke, 1968
B. caboensis (Stahnke, 1968)
B. cerralvensis Stahnke, 1968
B. comondae Stahnke, 1968
B. cruzensis Stahnke, 1968
B. parvulus Martin-Frias, 2004*
Cazierus Francke, 1978
C. alayoni Armas, 1999*
C. asper Teruel, 2006*
C. chryseus Teruel & Armas, 2006*
C. garridoi Armas, 2005*
C. granulosus Teruel, 2013*
C. gundlachii (Karsch, 1880)
C. neibae Kovarik & Teruel, 2014*
C. paradoxus Teruel & Diaz, 2004*
C. parvus Armas, 1984*
C. politus (Pocock, 1898)
C. torrei (Moreno, 1938)*
Cryptoiclus Teruel & Kovarik, 2012
C. rodriguezi Teruel & Kovarik, 2012
Didymocentrus Kraepelin, 1905
D. armasi Rolando & Rodriguez, 2008*
D. hasethi (Kraepelin, 1896)
D. hummelincki Francke, 1978
D. jaumei Armas, 1976*
D. krausi Francke, 1978
D. lesueurii (Gervais, 1844)
D. minor Francke, 1978
D. nitidus (Hirst, 1907)
D. sanfelipensis Armas, 1976*
D. trinitarius (Franganillo, 1930)
D. waeringi Francke, 1978
Diplocentrus Peters, 1861
D. actun Armas & Palacios-Vargas, 2002*
D. anophthalmus Francke, 1977
D. bellator Teruel, 2003*
D. bereai Armas & Martin-Frias, 2004*
D. bicolor Contreras-Felix & Santibanez-Lopez, 2011*
D. chol Francke, 2007*
D. churumuco Francke & Ponce Saavedra, 2005*
D. chiapasensis Beutelspacher & Armas, 1998*
D. coddingtoni Stockwell, 1988
D. colwelli Sissom, 1986
D. coylei Fritts & Sissom, 1996
D. cozumel Beutelspacher & Armas, 1998*
D. cueva Francke, 1978
D. diablo Stockwell & Nilsson, 1987
D. ferrugineus Fritts & Sissom, 1996
D. formosus Armas & Martin-Frias, 2003*
D. franckei Santibanez-Lopez, 2014*
D. gertschi Sissom & Walker, 1992
D. gladiator Beutelspacher & Trujillo, 1999*
D. hoffmanni Francke, 1977
D. insularis Sagastume-Espinoza, Longhorn & Santibanez-Lopez, 2015*
D. jaca Armas & Martin-Frias, 2000*
D. keyserlingii Karsch, 1880
D. kraepelini Santibanez-Lopez, Francke & Prendini, 2013*
D. lachua Armas, Trujillo & Agreda, 2011*
D. landelinoi Trujillo & Armas, 2012*
D. lindo Stockwell & Baldwin, 2001*
D. longimanus Santibanez-Lopez, Francke & Athanasiadis, 2011*
D. lourençoi Stockwell, 1988
D. lucidus Stockwell, 1988
D. luisae Guijosa, 1973
D. majahuensis Baldazo Monsivaiz, 2003*
D. motagua Armas & Trujillo, 2009*
D. maya Francke, 1977
D. melici Armas, Martin-Frias & Berea, 2004*
D. mexicanus Peters, 1861
D. mitchelli Francke, 1977
D. mitlae Francke, 1977
D. montecristo Armas & Martin-Frias. 2000*
D. ochoterenai Hoffmann, 1931
D. ornatus Stockwell, 1988
D. oxlajujbaktun Trujillo & Armas, 2012*
D. peloncillensis Francke, 1975
D. perezi Sissom, 1991
D. rectimanus Pocock, 1898
D. reddelli Francke, 1977
D. roo Armas & Martin-Frias, 2005*
D. sagittipalpus Santibanez-Lopez, Francke & Prendini, 2013*
D. santiagoi Stockwell, 1988
D. silanesi Armas & Martin-Frias. 2000*
D. sinaan Armas & Martin-Frias. 2000*
D. sissomi Santibanez-Lopez, Francke & Prendini, 2013*
D. spitzeri Stahnke, 1970
D. steeleae Stockwell, 1988
D. taibeli (Caporiacco, 1938)
D. tehuacanus Hoffmann, 1931
D. tehuano Francke, 1977
D. tenango Santibanez-Lopez & Francke, 2008*
D. whitei (Gervais, 1844)
D. williamsi Sissom & Wheeler, 1995
D. zacatecanus Hoffmann, 1931
Heterometrus Ehrenberg, 1828
H. atrascorpius Mirza, Joshi, Desouza & Sanap, 2012*
H. barberi (Pocock, 1900)
H. beccaloniae Kovarik, 2004*
H. bengalensis (C. L. Koch, 1841)
H. cimrmani Kovarik, 2004*
H. cyaneus (C. L. Koch, 1836)
H. flavimanus (Pocock, 1900)
H. fulvipes (C. L. Koch, 1837)
H. gravimanus (Pocock, 1894)
H. indus (DeGeer, 1778)
H. kanarensis (Pocock, 1900)
H. keralaensis Tikader & Bastawade, 1983
H. laoticus Couzijn, 1981
H. latimanus (Pocock, 1894)
H. liangi Zhu & Yang, 2007*
H. liophysa (Thorell, 1888)
H. liurus (Pocock, 1897)
H. longimanus (Herbst 1800)
H. madraspatensis (Pocock, 1900)
H. mysorensis Kovarik, 2004*
H. nepalensis Kovarik, 2004*
H. petersii (Thorell, 1876)
H. phipsoni (Pocock, 1893)
H. rolciki Kovarik, 2004*
H. scaber (Thorell, 1876)
H. sejnai Kovarik, 2004*
H. spinifer (Ehrenberg, 1828)
H. swammerdami Simon, 1872
H. telanganaensis Javed, Mirza, Tampal & Lourenço, 2010*
H. thorellii (Pocock, 1892)*
H. tibetanus Lourenço, Qi & Zhu, 2005*
H. tristis (Henderson, 1919)
H. ubicki Kovarik, 2004*
H. wroughtoni (Pocock, 1899)
H. xanthopus (Pocock, 1897)
Heteronebo Pocock, 1899
H. bermudezi (Moreno, 1938)
H. caymanensis Francke, 1978
H. cicero Armas & Marcano-Fondeur, 1987
H. clareae Armas, 2001*
H. dominicus Armas, 1981
H. elegans Francke, 1978
H. forbesii Pocock, 1899
H. granti Pocock, 1899
H. monticola (Armas, 1999)*
H. nibujon Armas, 1984
H. oviedo (Armas, 1999)*
H. portoricensis Francke, 1978
H. pumilus Armas, 1981
H. scaber (Pocock, 1893)*
H. vachoni Francke, 1978
H. yntemai Francke & Sissom, 1980
Kolotl Santibanez-Lopez, Francke & Prendini, 2014*
K. magnus (Beutelspacher & López-Forment, 1991)*
K. poncei (Francke & Quijano-Ravell, 2009)*
Nebo Simon, 1878
N. flavipes Simon, 1882
N. franckei Vachon, 1980
N. grandis Francke, 1980
N. henjamicus Francke, 1980
N. hierichonticus (Simon, 1872)
N. omanensis Francke, 1980
N. poggesii Sissom, 1994
N. whitei Vachon, 1980
N. yemenensis Francke, 1980
Oiclus Simon, 1880
O. nanus Teruel & Chazal, 2010*
O. purvesii (Becker, 1880)
O. questeli Teruel, 2008*
Opistophthalmus C. L. Koch, 1837
O. adustus Kraepelin, 1908
O. ammopus Lamoral, 1980
O. ater Purcell, 1898
O. austerus Karsch, 1879
O. boehmi (Kraepelin, 1896)
O. brevicauda Lawrence, 1928
O. capensis (Herbst, 1800)
O. carinatus (Peters, 1861)
O. cavimanus Lawrence, 1928
O. chaperi Simon, 1880
O. chrysites Lawrence, 1967
O. coetzeei Lamoral, 1979
O. concinnus Newlands, 1972
O. crassimanus Purcell, 1899
O. fitzsimonsi Hewitt, 1935
O. flavescens Purcell, 1898
O. fossor Purcell, 1898
O. fuscipes Purcell, 1899*
O. gibbericauda Lamoral, 1979
O. gigas Purcell, 1898
O. glabrifrons Peters, 1861
O. granicauda Purcell, 1898
O. granifrons Pocock, 1896
O. haackei Lawrence, 1966
O. harpei Harington, 2001*
O. holmi (Lawrence, 1969)
O. intercedens Kraepelin, 1908
O. intermedius Kraepelin, 1894
O. jenseni (Lamoral, 1972)
O. karrooensis Purcell, 1898
O. keilandsi Hewitt, 1914*
O. lamorali Prendini, 2000*
O. laticauda Purcell, 1898
O. latimanus C. L. Koch, 1841
O. latro Thorell, 1894*
O. lawrencei Newlands, 1969*
O. leipoldti Purcell, 1898*
O. litoralis Lawrence, 1955
O. longicauda Purcell, 1899
O. lornae Lamoral, 1979
O. luciranus Lawrence, 1959*
O. macer Thorell, 1876
O. nitidiceps Pocock, 1896
O. opinatus (Simon, 1888)
O. pallipes C. L. Koch, 1842
O. pattisoni Purcell, 1899
O. penrithorum Lamoral, 1979
O. peringueyi Purcell, 1898
O. pictus Kraepelin, 1894
O. pluridens Hewitt, 1918*
O. praedo Thorell, 1876*
O. pugnax Thorell, 1876*
O. pygmaeus Lamoral, 1979
O. scabrifrons Hewitt, 1913*
O. schlechteri Purcell, 1898
O. schultzei Kraepelin, 1908
O. setifrons Lawrence, 1961
O. ugabensis Hewitt, 1934
O. wahlbergii Thorell, 1876
Pandinoides Fet, 1997
P. cavimanus (Pocock, 1888)
P. platycheles Werner, 1916
Pandinops Birula, 1913
P. bellicosus (L. Koch, 1875)
P. colei (Pocock, 1896)
P. eritreaensis Kovarik, 2003*
P. hawkeri Pocock, 1900
P. peeli Pocock, 1900
P. pococki Kovarik, 2000*
Pandinopsis Vachon, 1974
P. dictator (Pocock, 1888)
Pandinurus Fet, 1997
P. arabicus (Kraepelin, 1894)
P. awashensis Kovarik, 2012*
P. bartolozzii Rossi, 2015*
P. exitialis (Pocock, 1888)
P. flagellicauda Rossi, 2015*
P. gregoryi (Pocock, 1896)
P. janae Rossi, 2015*
P. lorenzoi Rossi, 2015*
P. lowei Kovarik, 2012*
P. magrettii Borelli, 1901
P. meidensis Karsch, 1879
P. nistriae Rossi, 2014*
P. pallidus (Kraepelin, 1894)
P. pantinii Rossi, 2015*
P. percivali Pocock, 1902
P. prendinii Rossi, 2015*
P. pygmaeus Rossi, 2015*
P. somalilandus Kovarik, 2012*
P. sudanicus Hirst, 1911*
P. vachoni Rossi, 2014*
P. viatoris (Pocock, 1890)
Pandinus Thorell, 1876
P. boschisi Caporiacco, 1937 (nomen dubium, incertae sedis)
P. camerounensis Lourenço, 2014*
P. gambiensis Pocock, 1899
P. imperator (C. L. Koch, 1841)
P. mazuchi Kovarik, 2011*
P. phillipsii (Pocock, 1896)
P. roeseli (Simon, 1872)*
P. smithi (Pocock, 1899)
P. trailini Kovarik, 2013*
P. ugandaensis Kovarik, 2011*
P. ulderigoi Rossi, 2014*
Rugodentus Bastawade, Sureshan & Radhakrishnan, 2005*
R. keralaensis Bastawade, Sureshan & Radhakrishnan, 2005*
Scorpio Linnaeus, 1758
S. birulai Fet, 1997*
S. ennedi Lourenço, Duhem & Cloudsley-Thompson, 2012*
S. fuliginosus (Pallary, 1928)*
S. fuscus (Ehrenberg, 1829)*
S. hesperus Birula, 1910*
S. kruglovi (Ehrenberg, 1829)*
S. maurus Linnaeus, 1758
S. mogadorensis Birula, 1910*
S. niger Lourenço & Cloudsley-Thompson, 2012*
S. occidentalis Werner, 1936*
S. palmatus (Ehrenberg, 1829)*
S. propinquus (Simon, 1872)*
S. punicus Fet, 2000*
S. savanicola Lourenço, 2009*
S. sudanensis Lourenço & Cloudsley-Thompson, 2009*
S. weidholzi Werner, 1929*
Tarsoporosus Francke, 1978
T. anchicaya Lourenço & Flórez, 1990
T. flavus (Gonález-Sponga, 1984)
T. kugleri (Schenkel, 1932)
T. macuira Teruel & Roncallo, 2007*
T. yustizi Gonález-Sponga, 1984
Urodacus Peters, 1861
U. armatus Pocock, 1888
U. butleri Volschenk, Harvey & Prendini, 2012*
U. carinatus Hirst, 1911
U. centralis L. E. Koch, 1977
U. elongatus L. E. Koch, 1977
U. excellens Pocock, 1888
U. giulianii L. E. Koch, 1977
U. hartmeyeri Kraepelin, 1908
U. hoplurus Pocock, 1898
U. koolanensis L. E. Koch, 1977
U. lowei L. E. Koch, 1977
U. macrurus Pocock, 1899
U. manicatus (Thorell, 1876)
U. mckenziei Volschenk, Harvey & Smith, 2000*
U. megamastigus L. E. Koch, 1977
U. novaehollandiae Peters, 1861
U. planimanus Pocock, 1893
U. similis L. E. Koch, 1977
U. spinatus Pocock, 1902
U. varians Glauert, 1963
U. yaschenkoi (Birula, 1903)

Jan Ove Rein (C) 2015