Main Article Content
Time and spatial variations in macroparasite status were investigated in European perch, Perca fluviatilis, European whitefish, Coregonus lavaretus, and Arctic charr, Salvelinus alpinus in Lake Norsjø (Southern Norway), based on gillnet fishing in three locations in the spring, summer, and fall 2018. In addition, length, weigth, age, sex, δ13C, and δ15N were determined. Parasite abundance was modelled using negative binomial generalized linear models in relation to fish metrics, season, and sampling location. The most prevalent parasite species were determined by the diet and habitat of the host. European perch was mainly infected by acanthocephalans, European whitefish mainly infected by acanthocephalans and cestodes, and Arctic charr mainly infected by cestodes. The most prevalent parasites in European perch are transmitted by benthic animals. Parasites in European whitefish are transmitted by both benthic animals and copepods, while the most prevalent parasites in Arctic charr are copepod transmitted. This corresponds well with the δ13C signatures in the three species, indicating that European perch primarily fed in the littoral zone (δ13C: -24.9 ± 2.5 ‰), Arctic charr in the pelagic and profundal zone (δ13C: -29.4 ± 1.1 ‰), while European whitefish both fed in the littoral and pelagic zone (δ13C: -28.3 ± 2.3 ‰) of Lake Norsjø. Individual abundances of parasites depended on host age, length, sex, δ15N, and season. Positive correlations between parasite abundance and host age, length, or trophic level measured as δ15N were most common, and occurred in all three host species. Many parasites accumulate with age, and larger hosts provide more diverse habitats for parasites.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).