Freezing of ceramic slurries for creating porous green bodies.
Ceramic powder is mixed with water and then poured into a mold. The mold is attached to a copper rod which is submerged into liquid nitrogen. The freezing rate can be tuned by use of a temperature controller and hence controlled growth of ice crystal templates can be achieved in the ceramic body.
Freeze drying of frozen samples. Preferably only water-based samples. Operates usually at -50 °C and 0.5 mbar