Nordic Journal of Science and Technology Studies Journal for the study of science and technology en-US <p>All content in NJSTS is published under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 license. This means that anyone is free to share (copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format) or adapt (remix, transform, and build upon the material) the material as they like, provided they follow two provisions:</p><p><br />a) attribution - give appropriate credit, provide a link to the license, and indicate if changes were made.</p><p><br />b) share alike - any remixing, transformation or building upon the material must itself be published under the same license as the original.</p> (Tomas Moe Skjølsvold) (William Throndsen) Fri, 22 Dec 2017 11:09:11 +0000 OJS 60 An introduction to Crafting Sustainability – exploring the interconnections between sustainability and craft <p dir="ltr"><span>Sustainability has become a critical issue, calling for new conceptualizations of both problems and solutions. This special issue of the Nordic Journal of Science and Technology Studies,  explore the concept of “Crafting Sustainability”. Sustainability is a hot topic in contemporary scholarly debates, with methodological, theoretical, and conceptual contributions from a wide array of research areas, also from Science and Technology Studies. Craft on the other hand has been less of a focal point, although all humans relate to craft on some level.</span></p><div><span><br /></span></div> Roger Andre Søraa, Håkon Fyhn ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 22 Dec 2017 11:09:07 +0000 About the Cover Artist Rebecca Hutchinson Ivana Suboticki ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 22 Dec 2017 11:09:07 +0000 Working With Space: An opportunity to be considerate and reflective as a human being <p>Working With Space: An opportunity to be considerate and reflective as a human being</p><p> </p><p>As a visual artist, my work is primarily focused on building site-specific installation works for museums and galleries.  This visual site work affords me the opportunity to research, understand, and underline the dynamics of place, highlighting the totality of the function of sculptural elements to each other and within site.  Formally and structurally, my interest is in the details, quality of connections, quality of structure, and an understanding of all physical parts to a whole.  This work is fueled and influenced by my research of system dynamics, primarily a holistic investigation of ecosystem function and observations of nature with supportive comparative study in architectural theory, urban development, and the psychology of space as it supports this inquiry and excitement for the dynamism of parts to the whole.</p><p> </p><p>Within my research, my main interest has been looking at the quality of thriving function, not dysfunction, found in nature, which observes an awareness of its environment and responds accordingly.  As a point of reference for art making/installation building, I have been utilizing two themes from distinctive research: structural/physical qualities found in species connections and functional growth relationships in nature.  This has included studying, most recently, growth dynamics from plant observation of species in groups and species next to species.  How plants negotiate around boundaries and root length and dynamics, have been central to my interest in recent research.  Ultimately, this research resonates with my observations on human survival and the plight of human relationships, and fuels the visual large-scale installation pieces.    </p><p> </p><p>In my artwork, not only does content stem from holistic sustainability interests, but also material and processes are involved in making choices about being considerate and being a part of a global system, some of which are distinctive in the field.  One of these methods utilizes paperclay, a construction material of a blended mix of clay and paper that offers unique lightweight and large-scale installation opportunity that can be fired or non-fired.  I use either clay found close to the site or a dry EPK.  The paper (100% cellulose) is either foraged from place in its natural state (grass or stalks) and boiled, or recycled from old clothes (100% natural fibers), both are beaten to a pulp in a papermaker’s beater called a Hollander beater.  The paperclay material, when blended at 70/30 ratio, is strong and offers construction diversity; it can be dipped, sprayed, cast, modeled, or stuccoed.  It can also be non-fired and fixed with a white glue or Portland cement to be presented at a variety of hardness densities.  Or, of course, fired out, losing the paper percent in weight. </p><p> </p><p>Building on site with this mud mixture gives flexibility by allowing the installations to be built, making choices as I go, responding to the space and the sculptural forms responding to each other.  Ultimately, the installation also accommodates the viewer.  It provides a physical passage to move through the piece to consider the relationships between the forms, and the relationship of the forms to the space, offering the consideration of the sensitivities of all integral parts being of value to the potential whole.</p><p> </p><p>Please view</p><p> </p><p class="FreeForm"> </p><p> </p><p> </p><p> </p><p> </p><p> </p><p><strong> </strong></p><p> </p><p> </p> Rebecca Hutchinson ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 22 Dec 2017 11:09:07 +0000 Crafting sustainability? An explorative study of craft in three countercultures as a learning path for the future <p>This article explores and seeks to identify what ‘crafting sustainability’ could mean in relation to education for sustainable development (ESD). Certain ESD craft pedagogies are explored in three countercultures (from 1900, 1968 and 2017). The empirical data consists of literature from or about these three countercultures. A broad notion of sustainability and the educational philosophies of perennialism, essentialism, progressivism and reconstructivism are used as theoretical frameworks. The findings show the countercultures’ educative craft purposes, craft skills and approaches to learning craft and the possible implications for ESD. In particular, three tensions concerning the implications of an ESD craft pedagogy are discussed.</p> Hanna Hofverberg, David O. Kronlid, Leif Östman ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 22 Dec 2017 11:09:09 +0000 Craft micro-enterprises contributions to sustainability: the example of yarn related businesses <p>This paper uses two case studies of small UK-based yarn businesses to explore whether craft enterprises might make a distinctive contribution to sustainable development. The ways in which positive social, environmental and economic impacts are supported by these businesses are identified and their potential as niche sites contributing to a broader sustainability transition is considered. These businesses themselves believe there are strong links to the social dimensions of sustainability, particularly in terms of community building. There is also a distinctive contribution to economic aspects of sustainability with the outputs of craft enterprises releasing latent financial value and attaching value associated with provenance and rarity compared to a commodity market, rather than contributing to conventional economic growth. Contributions to environmental sustainability are largely indirect, through changing the economic viability of marginal agricultural production and therefore allowing conservation management in less economically favoured areas. This preliminary analysis suggest that the smallest craft enterprises do offer insights into how a wide transition might be achieved, but realising such a transition is made more difficult by the ambitions and motivations of the individuals in the craft businesses themselves.</p> Alice Owen ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 22 Dec 2017 11:09:09 +0000 Refugium WA: crafting connection through plant-relating arts-science experiences of urban ecology <p>Various platforms have demonstrated the value of hands-on activities – such as community gardening and crafting – in making meaningful connections and collective identities for a sustainable and resilient future. In his seminal book, Flow: The Psychology of Optimal Experience (1990), psychologist Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi describes how these activities can be an opportunity to engage with ‘flow’ – a highly focused mental state that increases awareness, connectivity and well-being. In Through Vegetal Being (2016), philosophers Luce Irigaray and Michael Marder also argue that it is through ‘vegetal’ (or plant relating) activities in particular (e.g. touching and smelling plants), that our relations with the more-than-human world can be reignited. Drawing upon these publications and others, this paper explores how combining these two modes of thought – to enable ‘flow’ through shared ‘vegetal’ or plant-based activities – may assist communities in gaining a greater awareness of and connection to sustainability. The potential of plant-based creative activities are examined through a recent, practice-led, arts-science research project (Refugium WA, Australia 2017), which used scientific knowledge and ‘vegetal’ or ‘botanical’ crafting as a way of engaging people in biodiversity issues. The project employed the community in creating mini native plant- sculptures which were temporally installed at the State Library of Western Australia. Indication of flow, increased nature-connection and biodiversity understanding were explored through gathering observations of the participants, pre- and post-activity surveys and discussions. The research sought to examine the capacity for vegetal- crafting activities to lead to new modes of arts-science communication that connect people to the importance of biodiversity in urban spaces.</p> Tanja Beer, Cristina Hernandez Santin ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 22 Dec 2017 11:09:09 +0000 Crafting sustainability in iconic skyscrapers: a system of building professions in transition? This paper focuses on coordination, fragmentation, and the potential for transition in the system of building professions in the American construction industry. The paper relies mainly on local press coverage of three iconic New York skyscrapers—the Empire State Building (completed in 1931), the U.N. Secretariat (completed in 1952) and One World Trade Center (completed in 2014)— to compare how the roles of different building professionals are seen by and portrayed to the public eye over time. The historic cases show how different professional groups—builders in the 1930s, architects in the 1950s, and engineers in the 2010s—imbued each project with “sustainable” qualities appropriate for its time. Using a system of professions (Abbott 1988[r]) approach, the paper describes and discusses the implications of changes in societal interest from doing to designing in American skyscrapers. The paper concludes by arguing that greater coordination between doers and designers in the construction industry, of the kind exhibited in the early days of skyscrapers, would enable the social production of sustainable buildings. For this to happen, however, society would need to place a higher value on tangible outcomes compared to lofty goals..<p class="Default"> </p> Kathryn B. Janda ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 22 Dec 2017 11:09:10 +0000 Between craft and regulations: experiences with the construction of two “super insulated” buildings in Norway <p style="margin: 0cm 0cm 8pt; text-align: justify;">Building regulations set standards that aim to reduce energy use and CO2 emissions, and thereby to support the development of a more sustainable building stock. The Norwegian government uses building regulations to influence the construction industry, and they directly affect how craftspeople from the industry apply their skills. Regulations are converging with understandings about sustainability, energy use, building materials, and comfort requirements that are circulating in society. In this paper, we investigate the negotiations between the meaning and value associated with the requirements for the material structure and the craftsperson’s role. Two houses in Central Norway are the starting point, where qualitative methods, primarily semi-structured interviews and observation, are used to gain insight into the craftsperson’s view of the Norwegian building regulations. The two houses represent two different building standards. A Passive House in Åfjord Municipality, completed in 2014, and ZEB Living Lab in Trondheim, a zero emission building (ZEB), completed in 2015. In Norway, the building regulations are reviewed every five years. In 2011, craftspeople were constructing buildings to the low-energy standard. This led to an increased focus on “super insulating” building techniques during period 2013-16 when the case studies took place. Starting with a craftsperson’s (in this case most often a carpenter’s) view of current and future building standards, this paper asks what implications the increasing demands for energy efficient and environmentally friendly buildings have on the role of the craftsperson and their application of skill. The paper shows that the construction industry bases much of its activity on Norwegian construction traditions and skill; and that this guides the development of new generations of buildings. The use of established skills and knowledge is both a strength and a challenge when dealing with a new set of building regulations. Skill is a resource to build upon, but it is also influenced by a conservativism that has difficulties getting beyond the extra time and costs associated with new regulations. It can therefore function as a barrier to the use of construction crafts to establish more sustainable building forms within the Norwegian market.</p> Ruth Woods, Marius Støylen Korsnes ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 22 Dec 2017 11:09:10 +0000 Craftsmanship in the machine: sustainability through new roles in building craft at the technologized building site <p>The building industry is becoming increasingly characterized by automated production, and in line with this, the nature of craftsmanship is transforming. In this article, we look for a sustainable path for this transformation through a case study that follows a team of carpenters building a set of tower blocks at a high-tech building site using “lean” construction techniques and robotic production technology. The builders are organized according to complex schedules of lean construction, making work at the building site resemble that of a large machine. The builders hold multiple roles within this machine: more than simply “living mechanisms” inside the machine, they also take on more parental roles as “machinists,” employing their crafting skills in planning, problem solving, improvising, coordinating and fettling in order to make the building machine run smoothly and to minimize environmental uncertainty. The craftsmanship in action is characterized by what we call workmanship of uncertainty – the ability to produce certain results in uncertain conditions. We identify this as the collective skill of a community of practice. The sustainability of craftsmanship in the machine is analyzed according to three kinds of sustainability: cultural, social and ecological. We suggest that all three forms depend on the building company’s ability to provide working conditions that allow the builders to form stable communities of practice in order to perform, share and develop craftmanship. Finally, we show that working in and with technological production systems does not require fewer skills (of craftsmanship) than traditional building, but a nuanced application of these skills.</p> Håkon Fyhn, Roger Andre Søraa ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 22 Dec 2017 11:09:11 +0000