Nordic Journal of Science and Technology Studies 2019-06-24T09:33:28+00:00 Roger A. Søraa Open Journal Systems Journal for the study of science and technology Editoral 2019-06-24T09:33:26+00:00 Jenny Bergschold Roger A. Søraa 2019-05-19T17:47:39+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Stories of creation 2019-06-24T09:33:25+00:00 Nora Levold Marit Svingen Margrethe Aune <p>This article discusses the Norwegian media debate on surrogacy from 2010–2013. The debate was initiated by the ‘Volden-case’ where a Norwegian woman who had travelled to India to have surrogate twins could not return to Norway because the Norwegian authorities refused to give the children passports. At that time in 2010, surrogacy was not explicitly regulated by the existing Norwegian Biotechnology Act. According to the Norwegian Child and Parents Act of 1982, the woman who physically gives birth is the mother of the child. It soon became clear that, because this case existed in regulatory limbo, it required a legislative solution. At the time there was an intense and heated media debate. This was resolved when a temporary law was passed in 2013, pending a more permanent Biotechnology Act. During the process of revising the new Biotechnology Act in 2017–2018, we anticipated a continuation of the intense debate that occurred earlier. Surprisingly, this did not happen. In this article we aim to explain why. By analyzing the original 2010–2013 media debate using Hajer’s concepts of ‘discourse coalitions’ and ‘storylines’ (Hajer 2003), we identified three discourse coalitions which gathered around three storylines: the ‘storyline of biological parenthood’, the ‘storyline of equality’ and the ‘storyline on human trafficking’. The analysis demonstrated that the ‘storyline on human trafficking’ gained strength during the 2010–2013 debate, ultimately becoming hegemonic at the end of this period. Surprisingly, the other two discourse coalitions did not appear much in the media debate prior to the new law. This article discusses the lack of these discourse coalitions and concludes that the hegemonic nature of the ‘storyline on human trafficking’ may explain why the new Biotechnology Act did not spark heated debate.<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp;</span></p> 2019-05-19T19:51:59+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Struggles over Legitimate Science 2019-06-24T09:33:27+00:00 Johanna Hokka <p class="p2">In several countries, national governments have implemented science policy reforms to elevate research excellence and to promote managerialist principles with an aim to gain success in the global knowledge-based economy. This qualitative study explores discursive responses to the current science policy reforms in Finnish and Swedish sociology. Drawing on a Bourdieusian perspective and a two-country research context, the research scrutinises the dynamics between the field of sociology and science policy paying particular attention to how the science policy ideals on excellence appear in the internal discursive struggles surrounding legitimate science among professors of sociology, who are conceived as a scientific elite. The results show that the excellence ideals are met in various, conflicting ways in sociology. Furthermore, there are national differences as Finnish sociology expresses more compliance towards science policy reforms than its Swedish counterpart, which seems more able to distance itself from these ideals and cherish traditional academic values. These findings evince that although science policy trends are becoming increasingly global, national university traditions and political cultures entail a slightly different national shape to seemingly similar reforms, which again, shapes the way the science policy incentives are made sense of at the grassroots level of academia, even within this particular discipline.</p> 2019-05-19T17:37:05+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Inclusive physical and digital spaces in vocational rehabilitation 2019-06-24T09:33:28+00:00 Gunnar Michelsen Tor Slettebø Ingunn Brita Moser <p class="p2">This paper describes and discusses factors related to the working environment that promote the inclusion of job seekers with cognitive impairments. Vocational rehabilitation for job seekers with cognitive impairments is undertaken in adapted working environments. The working environment is a synthesis of the practices that are developed in the enterprise, in physical premises and digital spaces.</p> <p class="p2">Job seekers with cognitive impairments, for example Asperger’s syndrome and/or ADHD, have greater challenges in entering the labour market compared with other groups with impaired functional capacity (Hansen 2009). The importance of social skills, a more complex and dynamic working life and modern methods of organizing work, such as groupwork or teamwork in smaller groups with a flat structure, constitute some of the reasons for these challenges (Hawkins 2004, Attwood 2007).</p> <p class="p2">This paper builds on research following two adapted rehabilitation programmes for job seekers with cognitive impairments. Empirical data were collected through ethnographic/praxiographic fieldwork in enterprises offering the rehabilitation programmes (duration 24 months) (Mol 2002). The empirical material from this multiple case study is discussed using the concepts of ‘scenario’ (Callon 1987), and ‘affinity space’ (Gee 2004) from Geography and Science, Technology and Society studies (STS).</p> <p class="p2">The paper describes how the rehabilitation scenario in the enterprises is constructed to help participants to work on something that interests them, in a space where they can develop coping strategies and with access to technology that can enable them to find work as IT professionals in the future. Further, the study points to how development of an individually adapted and familiar digital interface, as well as access to a digital space in which the job seekers can be relatively autonomous, were crucial.</p> <p class="p3">The study finds that factors such as job tasks, the community of a shared diagnosis and interests, and the fact that the working environment includes physical space that can be characterized as affinity space, contribute to inclusion and the development of coping strategies.</p> 2019-05-19T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Happiness Studies 2019-06-24T09:33:27+00:00 Margareta Hallberg Christopher Kullenberg <p class="p2">This article is about the growth and establishment of the interdisciplinary research field ”Happiness Studies”. This article focuses on how research on happiness has become a quickly growing and successful field within western societies and what it says about both the social sciences and contemporary social order. The concept of co-production, as defined by Sheila Jasanoff, is used to show how science and society interact and influence each other. Hence, we show how happiness has become a significant topic for empirical studies and the way interdisciplinary research is intertwined with what is perceived as both challenging and worth striving for in society and culture.</p> 2019-05-19T17:39:17+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Digital Music Distribution: The Sociology of Online Music Streams 2019-06-24T09:33:25+00:00 Raphaël Nowak <p>Reviewed by Raphaël Nowak, Griffith University<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp;</span></p> 2019-05-19T17:52:08+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## About the cover artist 2019-05-20T08:53:05+00:00 Lina Ingeborgrud <p>AnnaSofia Mååg<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp;</span></p> 2019-05-19T17:56:17+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##