EiP's author-year style of referencing

Etikk i praksis – Nordic Journal of Applied Ethics follows its own author-year style that combines APA and the so-called Harvard system.
  • Do not use abbreviations such as ibid., op.cit., loc.cit., idem, or et passim.
  • in the list of References and in-text citations, list all authors and do not use et al. When authors number 8 or more, include the first 6, then insert three ellipses, and add the last author. Example: Krishnan, K. J., Reeve, A. K., Samuels, D. C., Chinnery, P. F., Blackwood, J. K., Taylor, R. W., . . . Turnbull, D. M.
  • 3, 4 or 5 authors: name all authors first time you quote them. From then on use only the surname of the first author, followed by 'and others.' Example: Ramaekers, Berghausb, Laarc and Drummer (2004), followed by 'Ramaekers and others (2004)'.
  • 6 or more authors: only give the first author's surname, followed by and others. Example: Cheng and others (2004).
  • For in-text citations, give the surname of the author and the year of publication. As a general rule, page references should be supplied after the year of publication, separated by a colon. For example (Luhmann 1992: 16–20).
  • Quotations must be indicated by quotation marks. Quotations that are longer than three lines must be organised as separate paragraphs using 10 point font, single spacing and an 0.5 cm indentation from the left hand margin. Use single quotation marks for a quotation enclosed inside another quotation. Use square brackets to indicate any shortening of a quotation: […]
Books In-text:"Quoted text" (Abbott 1988: 59).Abbott (1988: 59) argued that... References:Abbott, A. (1988). The system of professions: An essay on the division of expert labor. Chicago, University of Chicago Press. In-text:"Quoted text" (Oakley & Cocking 2001: 59).Oakley and Cocking (1988: 59) argued that... References:Oakley, J., Cocking, D. (2001). Virtue ethics and professional roles. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press. Book anthologies In-text:"Quoted text" (Lynch 1961: 1).Lynch (1961: 1) argued that... References:Lynch, F. (1961). Social acceptance. In Lynch, F. (Ed.), Four Readings on Philippine Values (pp. 1-21). Quezon City: Ateneo de Manila University Press. Journals In-text:"Quoted text" (Calhoun 1995: 235).Calhoun (1995: 235) argued that... References:Calhoun, C. (1995). Standing for something. The Journal of Philosophy 92(5): 235-260. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2940917 Theses/Dissertations In-text:"Quoted text" (Hasund 2003: 1).Hasund (2003: 1) argued that... References:Hasund, I. K. (2003). The discourse markers like in English and liksom in Norwegian teenage language : A corpus-based, cross-linguistic study (Doctoral dissertation, University of Bergen). Bergen: University of Bergen. Online sources In-text:"Quoted text" (Fugelsnes 2004).Fugelsnes (2004) argued that... References:Fugelsnes, E. (2004). Oppvarmet støv kan gi økte helseplager. Retrieved April 01, 2004, from http://www.forskning.no/Artikler/2004/mars/1079517069.32 Newspapers (print) In-text:"Quoted text" (Ashenmacher 2015).Ashenmacher (2015) reports that... References:Ashenmacher, W. (2015, May 31). Reversing the sands of time: After years of neglect and abuse, Park Point's dune ecosystem is making a comeback thanks to the work of volunteers. Duluth News Tribune, p. A1. Newspapers (online) In-text:"Quoted text" (Andersson 2012).Andersson (2012) reports that... References:Andersson, A. (2012, May 9). Flere klimaskeptikere. Bergens Tidene. Retrieved September 05, 2012, from http://www.bt.no/nyheter/lokalt/Flere-klimaskeptikere-2700710.html. Legal documents In-text:"Quoted text" (Treaty of Neutrality 1929).In Treaty of Neutrality (1929) it is  stated that... References:Treaty of Neutrality, Hungary-Turkey, Jan. 5, 1929, 100 L.N.T.S. 137.(Format: Title of Agreement, Party A-Party B, date, volume number volume name page number) In-text:"Quoted text" (Convention for the Avoidance of Double Taxation and the Prevention of Fiscal Evasion With Respect to Taxes on Estates, Inheritances, and Gifts, 1978). In the Convention for the Avoidance of Double Taxation and the Prevention of Fiscal Evasion With Respect to Taxes on Estates, Inheritances, and Gifts (1978) it is  stated that... References:Convention for the Avoidance of Double Taxation and the Prevention of Fiscal Evasion With Respect to Taxes on Estates, Inheritances, and Gifts, U.S.-France, Nov. 24, 1978, 32 U.S.T. 1935.(Format: Title of Agreement, Party A-Party B-Party C, date, volume number volume name page number.) For more legal documents, citation examples listed on http://blog.apastyle.org/apastyle/legal/ should be followed.  For more examples, see citations and list of references in the most recent published articles in the Archives or set your citation management software (e.g. EndNote) to APA 6th. You may request for an EiP EndNote style *.ens file. In addition, the following specifications apply:
  • Avoid numbered headlines. Use bold 14 point type for first level headings, and italicised 12 point type for second level headings.
  • Distinguish between the dash and the hyphen. In order to emphasise words, please italicise – do not underline or use bold type.