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Harvard rules for in-text citation

Quotes

A quote is a word by word rendering of something somebody else has written.

When using quotes, you should mark these in a way that makes it easy for the reader to see what is a quote and what is your own text.

Quotes consisting of two to three lines or less are integrated in the text and placed in quotation marks. The name of the author, year and page should be put in brackets following the quote. If the quote is over two to three lines it should be its own indented paragraph, without quotation marks. The name of the author, year and page should be put in brackets following the quote.

References

  • If a reference has more than three authors you should only give the surname of the first author, followed by et al.
  • Multiple publications by the same author in the same year should be distinguished by placing a, b, c, and so on, subsequent to the year.
  • When a work has no identifiable author, use the title.
  • When using secondary sources you should name your source and give a quote for the secondary source.

There is no official manual of the Harvard style. Information on how to write in-text references and reference lists in the Harvard style has been retrieved from Pears and Shields (2010).

Pears, R. and Shields, G. (2010) Cite them right : the essential referencing guide. 8th edn. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

Examples of in-text references in the Harvard style

Subject to errors.

Quotes

Short quote:
Your own text. ”Sitering vil si ordrett gjengivelse av andres arbeider. Da skal det være ordrett, og ikke misbrukt i forhold til den sammenheng sitatet brukes i” (Stene, 1999, p. 125). Your own text continues.

Longer quote:
Your own text.

Det er ikke tilstrekkelig å oppgi kilder i en samlet oversikt bakerst i rapporten. De skal også oppgis i den løpende teksten (brødteksten), ellers kan ikke leserne vite hva du bygger nettopp det avsnittet eller kapitlet på. Du kan ikke vente at leserne skal drive detektivarbeid. (Rognsaa, 2000, p. 63)

Your own text continues.

The name of the author is integrated in the body copy:
Stene (1999, p. 125) defines quoting in these terms: ”Quoting is a word by word rendition of other people's work. Since this is the case, it should be given accurately and not be abused in any other context”. Your own text continues.

Reference with multiple authors:
Your own text. ”In direct quoting the reference should name the author, year and page number” (Furseth and Everett, 1997, p. 141). Your own text continues.
or
Furseth and Everett (1997, p. 141) states: ”In direct quoting the reference should name the author, year and page number”. Your own text continues.

More than 2 authors:
Wakefield et al. (1998), your own text.

Paraphrasing

Original text: The use of references and bibliographies is primarily based on the ideal of research as a collective endeavor. Here, a key point is the verifiability of research. You must account for where you have retrieved your information, as well as refer to it in such a manner that others may follow your sources and find the same information you did (Furseth and Everett, 1997, p. 142).

Edited text: Furseth and Everett (1997) claim that the primary reason behind use of references and bibliographies is the ideal of research as a collective endeavor. Research should be verifiable, and those reading your work should be able to find those sources your material is based upon.

References

Researchers such as Warwick (1992), Alt and King (1994) and Warwick and Easton (1992) has claimed…

Taylor and Herman (1971), Sanders and Herman (1977) and King et al. (1990) finds that…

Miscellaneous

  • Several publications by the same author published in the same year: Hansen (1988a) and Hansen (1988b)
  • Secondary sources: The Studies of Johnson and Peters (1970, as quoted in Wagner 1982)…
  • Anonymous works: (Et enklere og mer rettferdig inntektssystem 1996)