engelsk kan stilles til språkrådgiver Stewart Clark,
Studieavdelingen, e-post: email@example.com,
tlf. 73 59 52 45 eller faks:
73 59 52 37
What is a dr. ing., siv. ing. or cand.
mag. degree called in English? The answer is that the Ministry
of Education, Research and Church Affairs has stated that there
is not to be any translation of degrees. Consequently, the name
of Norwegian degrees is also to be used in English and other languages.
This is logical as the content, structure and level of degrees
vary around the world. This column looks at how to
handle Norwegian degrees in English.
Doctoral degree, PhD, dr. art., dr.
A doctoral degree is the highest university
degree. The most normal type at universities in or based on the
UK/US higher education systems is the Doctor of Philosophy
(usually abbreviated PhD in British English (BE) and
Ph.D. in American English (AE)). This degree is from any
faculty apart from law, medicine and sometimes theology. Although
PhD is equivalent to the highest degrees awarded by Norwegian
universities (such as: dr. art., dr. ing., dr. scient., dr. med.),
it is not recommended that you «translate» your dr.
art. or dr. ing. to PhD, as no two degrees are
identical. A business card or a CV must have the name of the degree
you have and NTNU does not award the PhD degree. No one
is going to misunderstand dr. ing. If a specification is
required, write Ole Olsen, dr. ing. (Doctorate in Chemical
Engineering). Some students at NTNU call themselves «PhD
student» which is misleading as there is no such degree
at NTNU. The term «Doctoral student» would be more
Master's degree, MA, MSc
A master's degree is the second or further
degree from a university or equivalent institution. The most normal
types at universities in or based on the UK/US higher education
systems are Master of Arts (usually abbreviated MA
in BE and M.A. in AE) and Master of Science (abbreviated
MSc in BE and M.S. in AE). This degree is roughly
equivalent to second or professional degrees from Norwegian universities.
Once again, it is not recommended to «translate» cand.
philol. to MAor sivilingeniør to MSc.
In a CV or on a business card, use the title of the degree you
have and, if you need to explain it, write Ole Olsen, cand.
philol. (graduate degree in modern languages), Ole Olsen, siv.
ing. (graduate degree in telecommunications). Another reason
why such translations are misleading is that Norwegian universities
now offer two-year masters-level degrees that are taught in English.
Thus, an MSc in Hydropower Development at NTNU means a two-year
degree designed for students that already have a BSc degree. Another
complication is that some British universities award a first
degree called MA in some honours degree courses. An example
is Edinburgh whereMA (Hons.)is the first degree in the
Arts andM Littis the second degree.
Bachelor's degree, BA, BSc
A bachelor's degree is the first degree
from a university or equivalent institution. The most normal types
at universities in or based on the UK/US higher education systems
are Bachelor of Arts (usually abbreviated BA in
BE and B.A. in AE) and Bachelor of Science (abbreviated
BSc in BE and B.S. in AE). This degree is roughly
equivalent to first degrees in Norwegian universities, but do
not «translate» cand. mag. to BA or
BSc. Use the title of the degree you have. If you want
to give an explanation, write Ole Olsen, cand. mag. (undergraduate
degree in social sciences).
Defective (Norw. defekt) refers
to things that do not function, such as defective software
meaning software that does not work. It is old fashioned and offensive
to use defective for someone with a mental illness. A suitable
alternative is learning difficulty, which is now the official
term in Britain.
Deficient (Norw. mangelfull) means
insufficient. Deficient software means software that is
not good enough for a task.
«The cand. philol. degree»
becomes «the canned phalli degree» in the automatic
spelling correction option in Word.
«He took a doctorate in unclear
«We apologize for the error in
last week's paper in which we stated that Mr Arnold Dogbody was
a defective in the police force. We meant, of course, that
Mr Dogbody is a detective in the police farce.» (Correction
in the Ely Standard, an English local newspaper.)