Publikasjoner Institutt for sosiologi og statvitenskap

 

Institutt for sosiologi og statsvitenskap forsker innenfor et enormt spekter av tema og problemstillinger. Våre forskere omhandler hele 4 fagområder i form av sosiologi, statsvitenskap, idrettsvitenskap og Medier, kommunikasjon og IT.

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Publikasjoner 2015

Brandth, B. and H. Bjørkhaug (2015): Gender Quotas for Agricultural Boards: Changing Constructions of Gender?

Brandth, B. and H. Bjørkhaug (2015): Gender Quotas for Agricultural Boards: Changing Constructions of Gender? Gender, Work and Organization, 22(6): 614-628.

This article explores the processes by which gender is given meaning through social interaction in
boardrooms. In Norway, alongside mandatory quotas regulating the composition of Public Lim-
ited Company boards, voluntary quotas were designed to increase women s membership on the
boards of agricultural co-operatives. This radical step to secure a minimum of 40 per cent women
makes these boards an interesting site for investigating the construction of gender in a tradition-
ally male-dominated organization. In the debate, arguments in favour of a quota accentuated di-
versity and differences between womens and mens competences, opinions and values. The
analysis of interview data from the boards of four agricultural co-operatives suggests that equal
representation is a muted, taken-for-granted value. Equality and diversity are not understood as
incompatible ideas, and gender is produced dynamically through practice rather than constituted
as an inherent, xed attribute. Gender as difference is less pervasive than expected as women tend
to be recognized as belonging to the gender-neutral category of a board representative despite any
recognized differences. The study demonstrates that voluntary quotas may change the context and
both challenge old assumptions and promote new understandings of gender in local situations.
Keywords: quota legislation, gender equality, diversity, agricultural industries, Norway

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/gwao.12112/epdf

Indra de Soysa, Indra. (2015) Oil and the 'New wars': another look at the Resource curse using alternative data.

Indra de Soysa (2015) Oil and the "New wars": another look at the Resource curse using alternative data.  Development Studies Reseach, vol. 2 (1). 

Abstract The thesis that natural resources cause conflict is criticized on the basis that resource dependence and conflict are caused by other underlying factors and that the relationship is endogenous. Using disaggregated resource rents on per capita basis, a measure likely to be less influenced by endogeneity, this study finds that oil, rather than other resources, influenced the onset of civil war between 1970 and 2013. Granger causality shows no relationship between resource dependence, measured as resource rents per gross domestic product, and measures of resource rents per capita. Moreover, in multivariate models of societal violence measured by the Global Peace Index (GPI), which capture aspects of ‘new wars’ witnessed during the post-Cold War era, oil rather than minerals is what matters for predicting societal insecurity defined more broadly than just the absence of war. These results are upheld across subcomponents of the GPI, such as measures of crime, the ease of access of small arms and light weapons, political instability, and the repression of human rights. If oil wealth is associated with these maladies, even if it might not always correlate with war, can it still be asserted that oil is not a curse?

Marcel Kok, Matthias Lüdeke, Paul Lucas, Till Sterzel, Carsten Walther, Peter Janssen, Diana Sietz & Indra de Soysa: A new method for analysing socio-ecological patterns of vulneralbility

Marcel Kok, Matthias Lüdeke, Paul Lucas, Till Sterzel, Carsten Walther, Peter Janssen, Diana Sietz & Indra de Soysa: A new method for analysing socio-ecological patterns of vulneralbility, 

 

Regional Environmental Change 01/2015; 16(1). DOI: 10.1007/s10113-014-0746-1

 

ABSTRACT : This paper presents a method for the analysis of socio-ecological patterns of vulnerability of people being at risk of losing their livelihoods as a consequence of global environmental change. This method fills a gap in methodologies for vulnerability analysis by providing generalizations of the factors that shape vulnerability in specific socio-ecological systems and showing their spatial occurrence. The proposed method consists of four steps that include both quantitative and qualitative analyses. To start, the socio-ecological system exposed to global environmental changes that will be studied needs to be determined. This could, for example, be farmers in drylands, urban populations in coastal areas and forest-dependent people in the tropics. Next, the core dimensions that shape vulnerability in the socio-ecological system of interest need to be defined. Subsequently, a set of spatially explicit indicators that reflect these core dimensions is selected. Cluster analysis is used for grouping the indicator data. The clusters found, referred to as vulnerability profiles, describe different typical groupings of conditions and processes that create vulnerability in the socio-ecological system under study, and their spatial distribution is provided. Interpretation and verification of these profiles is the last step in the analysis. We illustrate the application of this method by analysing the patterns of vulnerability of (smallholder) farmers in drylands. We identify eight distinct vulnerability profiles in drylands that together provide a global overview of different processes taking place and sub-national detail of their distribution. By overlaying the spatial distribution of these profiles with specific outcome indicators such as conflict occurrence or migration, the method can also be used to understand these phenomena better. Analysis of vulnerability profiles will in a next step be used as a basis for identifying responses to reduce vulnerability, for example, to facilitate the transfer of best practices to reduce vulnerability between different places.

H. Salgado, J. Bailey, R. Tiller, J. Ellis (2015). “Stakeholder perceptions of the impacts from Salmon Aquaculture in the Chilean Patagonia

H. Salgado, J. Bailey, R. Tiller, J. Ellis (2015).  “Stakeholder perceptions of the impacts from Salmon Aquaculture in the Chilean Patagonia”. Ocean and Coastal Management 118:189-204. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2015.07.016

 

 

 

Bailey J. M. V. Ardelan, K. L. Hernández, H. E. González, J.L. Iriarte, L. M. Olsen, H. Salgado and R.“Interdisciplinarity as an Emergent Property: The Research Project “Cintera” and the Study of Marine Eutrophication”.

Bailey J. M. V. Ardelan, K. L. Hernández, H. E. González, J.L. Iriarte, L. M. Olsen, H. Salgado and R.“Interdisciplinarity as an Emergent Property: The Research Project “Cintera” and the Study of Marine Eutrophication”.  Sustainability 2015, 7 (7) (doi:10.3390/su7079118I)

 

Dragano, N., Bambra, C., Wahrendorf, M., Van der Wel, K, Eikemo, T.A., & Lunau, T. (2015). Die Auswirkung politischer Initiativen zum Nichtraucher-Schutz am Arbeitsplatz in Europa. Eine Analyse von Trends in Länderübergreifenden Beschäftigtensurveys

Dragano, N., Bambra, C., Wahrendorf, M., Van der Wel, K, Eikemo, T.A., & Lunau, T. (2015). Die Auswirkung politischer Initiativen zum Nichtraucher-Schutz am Arbeitsplatz in Europa. Eine Analyse von Trends in Länderübergreifenden Beschäftigtensurveys. Das Gesundheitswesen, 77, (8-9).

Bambra, C & Eikemo, TA. (2015).Insecurity, unemployment and health. A social epidemiologicalperspective

Bambra, C & Eikemo, TA. (2015).Insecurity, unemployment and health. A social epidemiologicalperspective. Oxford Handbook of Job Loss and Job Search.  In Klehe, U. & van Hooft, E.(Eds.) The Oxford Handbook of Job Loss and Job Search. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. Doi: 10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199764921.013.019

Hoffmann, Eikemo, Kulhanova, Kulik, Looman, Menvielle, Deboosere, Martikainen, Regidor og Mackenbach (2015) Obesity and the potensial reduction og inequalities in all-cause and cause-specific mortality. Evidence from 21 European populations.

Hoffman, R., Eikemo, T.A., Kulhánová, I., Kulik., M., Looman, C., Menvielle, G., Deboosere, P., Martikainen, P., Regidor, E., & Mackenbach, J.P for the EURO-GBD-SE Consortium. (2015). Obesity and the potential reduction of inequalities in all-cause and cause-specific mortality: Evidence from 21 European populations. European Journal of Public Health, May 25, doi: 10.1093/eurpub/ckv090

Aksel Tjora (2015), The social rhythm of the rock music festival

Aksel Tjora (2015), The social rhythm of the rock music festival

Abstract. On the basis of observational studies in a number of rock music festivals during the period 20042012, I ask the following question in this paper: how does the music festival community arise and how is it maintained? With the help of perspectives from interactionist sociology and organisational studies I develop an analysis of how rock music festival skillsare collectively produced. A communally acknowledged competence is negotiated and made explicit by means, among other things, of the synchronisation of a daily rhythm that becomes common to many festivals. The present analysis will employ a close description of this rhythms phases, and how transitions between them are interactively negotiated. While rock music festivals certainly celebrate fandom, this paper draws attention to processes that build strong senses of community between participants while joining together in the camping site, outside stage areas. The social rhythm, as it is interactively and artfully produced between participants, makes the festival recognisable as a festival, and attractive as a social event. A profound sense of connectedness between participants is to be found between the tents in the festival camp.

http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayFulltext?type=1&fid=10048078&jid=PMU&volumeId=35&issueId=01&aid=10048073&fromPage=cupadmin&pdftype=6316268&repository=authInst

Sandra Günther (2015). The illegal transgression: discourse analysis of the media perception of the transgressive aesthetic of performance and display in top-level sports

Sandra Günther (2015). The illegal transgression: discourse analysis of the media perception of the transgressive aesthetic of performance and display in top-level sports

Abstract

The debate over Caster Semenya’s female sex began shortly after the South African runner won gold in the women’s 800 m final at the 2009 Athletic World Championships in Berlin. Her victory was disputed by questioning her right to compete as a woman. Using the theoretical framework of gender and postcolonial theories and the methodology of discourse and dispositive analysis, the paper explores the contextualization of a perceived transgressive, aesthetic, performance and display in the field of top-level sports. The case study analyses the discourses surrounding a non-white, non-male South African runner in eight mainstream Swiss German language print media. The paper argues that the media response to Semenya exemplifies Butler’s claim that the discursive framework of gender constructs and naturalizes sex. A key question is, therefore, whether the assignation of deviant bodies to a ‘field of deformation’ works to pluralize and cross set gender boundaries, or rather, as Butler suggests, calls those bodies into question.
 
 

Solberg, Harry Arne og Sæther, Stig Arve (2015). Talent development in football: are young talents given time to blossom? I Sport, Business and Management.

Solberg, Harry Arne og Sæther, Stig Arve (2015). Talent development in football: are young talents given time to blossom? I Sport, Business and Management.

 

Abstract:

Purpose: – The purpose of this paper is to investigate to what degree football clubs recruit talents and give them playing time in matches. It also investigates if foreign players displace younger talents. Furthermore, it analyses to what degree the use of younger talents and foreign players influence the performances of clubs.

Design/methodology/approach: – The empirical data are from Norwegian elite clubs, and come from two web sites: www.altomfotball.no and www.nettavisen.no. The analyses were done by means of OLS-regressions.
Findings:
– OLS-regressions showed that clubs that had many foreign players gave less playing time to U20 players than other clubs did. However, these clubs did not have fewer younger talents in the squad than other clubs did. This indicates that foreign players reduce the playing time being given to younger players, but not their ability to train with other teammates. The clubs that won the most points gave less playing time to U20 players (in terms of minutes). Surprisingly, the regression showed that the clubs that had most foreign players did not win more points than others.
 
Research limitations/implications: – Norwegian football clubs have significantly less financial resources than, for example, clubs in the big European football nations. Therefore, more research is necessary to find out whether the findings in this research corresponds with the pattern in other nations.
Originality/value: – So far, the discussions about these issues have mainly been based on anecdotal evidence and very little on the findings in academic research. Therefore, this research give new insight to a field that needs more empirical-based analyses.
Keywords:
Performance, Foreign players, Talent development

Tone Rian Myrli og Ingar Mehus (2015). Ulikhet i rekruttering og frafall i den organiserte idretten i Trondheim

Tone Rian Myrli og Ingar Mehus (2015). Ulikhet i rekruttering og frafall i den organiserte idretten i Trondheim

Organisert idrett blir trukket frem som en verdifull arena i en rekke sammenhenger, og anses som viktig for barn og unges oppvekst. Likevel vet vi at idretten har vanskelig for å leve opp til målsettingen om «Idrett for alle», og det blir dermed viktig å undersøke om det er systematiske skjevheter i rekruttering og frafall. Denne artikkelen undersøker ungdoms ulikhet i idrettsdeltagelse i lys av kjønn, majoritets- og minoritetsbakgrunn og sosioøkonomisk status. Resultatene viser at guttene rekrutteres til den organiserte idretten i større grad enn jentene og at jentene faller tidligere fra. Ungdom med minoritetsbakgrunn rekrutteres i mindre grad enn unge med majoritetsbakgrunn, men mønstret for frafall er likt på tvers av bakgrunn. Sosioøkonomisk status har betydning for frafall gjennom at ungdom fra familier med lav sosioøkonomisk status avslutter organisert idrettsaktivitet tidligere enn ungdom fra familier med høy sosioøkonomisk status. Dataene er hentet fra ungdomsundersøkelsen i Trondheim (UngHiT), 2009, og analysene omfatter ungdommer i første og andre klasse på videregående skole (N=1907).

Tidsskrift for ungdomsforskning 1/2015.

Ingeborg Grønning (2015). Being a good spy: Legitimizing access to web-based observation

Ingeborg Grønning (2015) Being a good spy: Legitimizing access to web-based observation

 

Abstract

Observation of online forums is a relevant methodological approach for researchers in several disciplines. However, ethical guidelines on such observations challenge the ethically concerned researcher. In this paper, I reflect on how I carried out my observation of an online weight-loss forum, and how I could have conducted it differently to meet ethical standards and the demands of high-quality research. After receiving approval from the forum administrators to observe the forum, information about my project on obesity was posted online. Some of the participants reacted negatively to my presence in the forum. This paper draws on the evolving discussion between researcher and participants on the complex issue of research ethics, particularly informed consent, in studying closed forums on the Internet. It is suggested that evaluating whether participants are harmed is more important than the public/private divide when considering whether informed consent is necessary.

Keywords

 
Internet-based research, research ethics, informed consent

https://www.ntnu.no/ojs/index.php/etikk_i_praksis/article/view/1864

Svein Johan Frisvoll, Magnar Forbord og Arild Blekesaune (2015) An Empirical Investigation of Tourists’ Consumption of Local Food in Rural Tourism".

Svein Johan Frisvoll, Magnar Forbord og Arild Blekesaune (2015) An Empirical Investigation of Tourists’ Consumption of Local Food in Rural Tourism".

Food's role in tourism is multifaceted and complex. Food is not only essential to the body but is also integral to the experience; moreover, it is elusively embedded within society, culture, politics, institutions, and economy. Although food's complexity is conceptually explored within tourism studies, empirical investigations into the consumption of food are few and far between. In this study, we contribute an empirical analysis that employs both quantitative and qualitative data from fieldwork in a rural Norwegian region where there have been sustained efforts to develop and integrate “local food” and rural tourism. Three research questions are investigated: to what extent is “local food” consumed by tourists? What factors affect tourists' consumption of local food? For tourists interested in local food, what purpose does the consumption of “local food” serve? We find that only a minority of rural tourism's tourists have a special interest in food. Nonetheless, for those who possess this interest, we find that local food plays an important role to their tourist experiences. Furthermore, the study suggests that local food is a means employed by parents to educate their children in the ways of “the rural idyll”.

Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism.  http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/15022250.2015.1066918

 

Hallgeir Viken, Nils Petter Aspvik, Jan Erik Ingebrigtsen, Nina Zisko, Ulrik Wisløff, and Dorthe Stensvold (2015)Correlates of Objectively Measured Physical Activity Among Norwegian Older Adults: The Generation 100 Study

Hallgeir Viken, Nils Petter Aspvik, Jan Erik Ingebrigtsen, Nina Zisko, Ulrik Wisløff, and Dorthe Stensvold (2015)Correlates of Objectively Measured Physical Activity Among Norwegian Older Adults: The Generation 100 Study

Abstract
The aim of this study was to identify how demographics and physical activity history, environmental and biological correlates are associated with objectively measured physical activity (PA) among older adults. PA was assessed objectively in 850 older adults (70-77 years, 47.6% females) using the Actigraph GT3X+ activity monitor. Hierarchicalmultiple regression analysis was used to identify important PA correlates. The included correlates explained 27.0% of the variance in older adult’s PA. Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), gender and season were the most important correlates, explaining 10.1%, 3.9% and 2.7% of the variance, respectively. PA was positively associated with CRF, females were more physically active than males and PA increased in warmer months compared with colder months. This is, to our knowledge, the largest study of PA correlates in older adults that has combined objectively measured PA and cardiorespiratory fitness. Our findings provide new knowledge of how different correlates are associated with PA.

Hallgeir Viken, Nils Petter Aspvik, Jan Erik Ingebrigtsen, Nina Zisko, Ulrik Wisløff, Dorthe Stensvold. Correlates of Objectively Measured Physical Activity Among Norwegian Older Adults: The Generation 100 Study. Journal of Aging and Physical Activity, 2015; DOI: 10.1123/japa.2015-0148

 

 

Brandth, Berit (2015). The co-location of home and work in two generations of farmers: what effects on fathering practices?

Brandth, Berit (2015). The co-location of home and work in two generations of farmers: what effects on fathering practices?

 

Abstract:

The co-location of home and work could enable parents to balance work and family life, but research has given contradictory results in regard to fathers who work at home. This article explores how the co-location of home and work in family farming affects fathers’ involvement in childcare. Interviews were conducted with two generations of fathers in seven families who have lived and worked on the same farm. Results showed significant differences between the two generations. The older generation of fathers integrated childcare into work, while the current generation more often fathers in domestic spaces rather than work spaces. Moreover, father–child interaction now takes place away from the farm as well. This study demonstrates that the significance of the co-location of home and work for fathering depends on shifting cultural and social contexts, and underscores fathering practices as relational, contingent and variable.

Families, Relationships and Societies, dx.doi.org/10.1332/204674315X14418885448328

http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/tpp/frs/pre-prints/content-PP_FRS-D-15-00003R2

 

Johan Fredrik Rye (2015). Moving to the countryside? The case of second home users in Norway

Johan Fredrik Rye (2015). Moving to the countryside? The case of second home users in Norway

http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/00291951.2015.1040832

Berit Brandt, Elin Kvande (2015) Fathers and flexible parental leave

Berit Brandth, Elin Kvande (2015). Fathers and flexible parental leave

Abstract:

Research on work-family balance has seen flexible work arrangements as a key solution for reconciling work and family, but it has given contradictory results in regard to fathers. This article focuses on flexible parental leave for fathers in Norway, which until now has rarely been studied. Based on interviews with 20 fathers, the article explores their experiences with flexible organization of the leave, which provides them with a menu of choices, and considers how it affects their caring. Findings show that it allows work to invade care, produces a double stress and promotes half-way fathering. Flexible use of the father’s quota tends to confirm fathers as secondary carers instead of empowering them as carers.

Keywords

fathers, father’s quota, flexible parental leave, Norway, work-family

http://wes.sagepub.com/content/early/2015/07/13/0950017015590749.full.pdf?ijkey=SkCkHELc7Lz1VbJ&keytype=finite

Moe, Espen, 2015; Renewable Energy Transformation or Fossil Fuel Backlash Vested Interests in the Political Economy

Moe, Espen, 2015; Renewable Energy Transformation or Fossil Fuel Backlash Vested Interests in the Political Economy

Why is renewable energy pursued so much more enthusiastically by some countries than others? The answer could simply be that countries with unresolved energy problems and an abundance of renewable resources pursue more ambitious policies. The author, however, argues that this is not so. Rather, renewable energy represents a potential future energy transformation and a major challenge to the existing energy system. It rises in the face of some of the most powerful energy actors the world has seen – fossil fuels, nuclear and electric utility companies – all of which have a vested interest in preserving the system. Moe analyzes the political economy of renewable energy in six very different countries (Japan, China, Germany, USA, Denmark and Norway) and energy structures, claiming that it is the extent to which states have successfully controlled these vested interests and prevented them from unduly influencing energy institutions that determines whether or not renewable energy has been a success.

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Bungum, Forseth og Kvande (red.) 2015. Den norske modellen Internasjonalisering som utfordring og vitalisering

Bungum, Forseth og Kvande (red.) 2015. Den norske modellen  Internasjonalisering som utfordring og vitalisering

Norge ligger på topp i internasjonale undersøkelser om levekår, lykke, velferd og tillit mellom mennesker. Samtidig blir det norske samfunnet kritisert for å ha en for stor velferdsstat, og for å mangle evne til mangfold og integrering. I Den norske modellen drøfter forfatterne hvordan økende internasjonalisering påvirker og utfordrer måten vi i Norge har valgt å organisere samfunnet på.

Bidragene i boka bygger på et bredt spekter av aktuell forskning om den norske arbeidslivs- og velferdsmodellen. Flere av problemstillingene som Den norske modellen presenterer, har fått stor oppmerksomhet i debatter og i forskning de siste årene:

· Hva har skjedd med Norges posisjon som ledende i samarbeid og demokrati i arbeidslivet?

- Hva forteller den norske oljehistorien om trepartssamarbeid som konkurransefaktor?

- Hva skjer når en virksomhet forsøker å eksportere den norske modellen til utlandet?

- Hvordan blir modellens bærekraft undergravd gjennom sosial dumping?

- Hvordan blir modellens likestillingsmålsettinger utfordret gjennom transnasjonale omsorgskjeder?

- Hva skal til for at samfunnet evner å integrere enkelte grupper av fattige innvandrere og forhindre utenforskap?

 Brita Bungum er førsteamanuensis, Ulla Forseth er professor og Elin Kvande er professor, alle ved Institutt for sosiologi og statsvitenskap; NTNU.

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Stig Arve Sæther (2015). Selecting players for youth national teams – a question of birth month and reselection?

Stig Arve Sæther (2015). Selecting players for youth national teams – a question of birth month and reselection?

Summary

Objectives

The relative age effect (RAE) has been documented to be present in the selection of national youth soccer players. Even so, few studies have documented the long-term effect on talent development. The aim of this study is to examine RAE among one cohort of Norwegian national youth soccer players. A second objective was to investigate the selection process.

Equipment and methods

Participants were 92 male players born in 1991 selected for one or more U15-U19 national team match in 2006–2010. The results are presented with basic descriptive statistics such as frequency counts and percentages. Chi2 tests were performed to compare differences between the observed and expected birth rate distribution across the four quarters of the Norwegian soccer year. The significance level of .05 was selected to determine statistical significance.

Results

The results showed that over 46% of the players were born in the first quartile. Furthermore, highlighting a large degree of replacement of players, where approximately 62% was selected for 1 or 2 years in the period, and only 22% of the selected players in 2010 had been selected earlier years. Potential explanations of this replacement will be discussed. This study supports the conclusion that RAE is a major factor in the selection of youth national team soccer players. However, it questions both the motivation hypothesis and the self-fulfilling prophecy hypothesis, associated with selection to a youth national team. Because of the high degree of exchange of players in the period, the advantages of early selection could be smaller than earlier expected in a talent development perspective.

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0765159715000702

Aalberg & Beyer (2015) Human Interest Framing of Irregular Immigration

Aalberg & Beyer (2015) Human Interest Framing of Irregular Immigration

Abstract

The media have a strong tendency to frame political issues with a focus on personal and emotional cases. We do not, however, know if there is a close link between the news media’s use of these frames and the news preferences of the public. Such a close relationship may exist either because human interest news coverage is driven by audience demand or because the public might be influenced by the degree of individual news stories in the news. On the other hand, the audience’s news preferences may be unrelated to the actual media coverage on irregular immigration due to citizens’ selective media exposure, which may be driven by political predispositions. Based on a large quantitative content analysis conducted in the United States, France, and Norway and a following public opinion survey in the same countries, we find that the application of a human interest frame in a country’s news coverage of irregular immigration does not correspond with the public’s preferences for this type of news coverage. On the individual level, our findings demonstrate that liberal audience groups favor human interest–framed news coverage, while conservatives do not agree that individual news stories would provide a better understanding of the issue of irregular immigration.

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Berit Brandth (2015) . Rural masculinities and fathering practices

Berit Brandth (2015) . Rural masculinities and fathering practices

Abstract

Fatherhood and fathering practices have been surprisingly absent from the literature on rural men and masculinity. This article draws on interviews with two generations of farm fathers in Norway to examine how rural masculinities are constructed through fathering practices. It explores how fathering creates potential for the development of alternative rural masculinities in two socio-historical contexts. Findings demonstrate that farm work is important for masculine legitimization in both generations, but, in contrast to the older generation, for the current generation farm work and fathering practices have become spatially separated. Their greater involvement in childcare within the domestic spaces indicates a slight shift towards more equal co-parenting
driven by the movement of mothers into the non-farm labour force and the new fathering moralities in society. However, fathering practices through outdoor sports, wilderness activities and hunting constitute stable sites of rural masculinity. As fathering requires nurture and compassion, these ‘traditional’ rural activities display the fluidity of rural masculinity.

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Reitan, Gustafsson & Blekesaune (2015) Do Local Government Reforms Result in Higher Levels of Trust in Local Politicians?

Reitan, Gustafsson & Blekesaune (2015) Do Local Government Reforms Result in Higher Levels of Trust in Local Politicians?

ABSTRACT

Local government reforms have been carried out in a number of European countries, aiming at both more effective service production and increased citizen participation in local politics. Although extensive research has been carried out analysing the content and background of these reforms, few if any, studies have considered the democratic effects of these reforms at the level of the individual citizen. This article investigates relationship between local government reforms and citizen trust in local government, focusing on individual-level data on local government reforms in Norway in 2008. The analysis shows that it is difficult to find a clear relationship between reform policies and trust in local politicians. These findings parallel other contributions in concluding that it is difficult to find substantial effects from local government re-organisations.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03003930.2014.891983

Arve Hjelseth (2015). Publikumskulturen i skiskyting og fotball i Håkon Larsen (red.) Kultursosiologisk forskning.

Arve Hjelseth (2015). Publikumskulturen i skiskyting og fotball i Håkon Larsen (red.) Kultursosiologisk forskning.

http://www.universitetsforlaget.no/nettbutikk/kultursosiologisk-forskning-uf.html 

Jorid Hovden (2015). Assessing the sociology of sport: On sport organizations.

Jorid Hovden (2015). Assessing the sociology of sport: On sport organizations.

 

Abstract

 On the 50th anniversary of the ISSA and IRSS, a key figure in the sociology of sport in Norway, Jorid Hovden, assesses research into sport organizations and the pressures of neoliberal discourses. In considering the trajectory of research into non-profit sport organizations, focus is given to the ideological tensions in the field today and how neoliberal management discourses may contribute to weakening the impact of sociological concerns. Key challenges in inquiry are anchored in the contradictory and mutually exclusive paradigms for research into sport organizations, with one stream reliant on management functionalities that are remiss in considering power relations and the other a critical stream that emphasizes diversity and equity. These differences are amplified in the methodological schisms between the two streams, with a bias towards epistemological orthodoxy, positivist logic, and empirical evidence crowding out critical and cultural stocktaking. In the future, sociological inquiry into non-profit sport organizations will be challenged by the dominance of a ‘new managerialism’ that portrays organizations as rational, action-oriented systems, where individual action, competitiveness, and entrepreneurialism are embedded logics. Scholarship using critical paradigms will need to fight effectively to develop alternative knowledge formations to help advance democratic and community-based sport organizations and reduce power differences, exclusion, and inequalities.

Keywords

critical paradigms, neoliberalism, non-profit organizations, sociology of sport, sport management, sport organizations 

http://irs.sagepub.com/content/50/4-5/472.full.pdf?ijkey=MzKLhJF4vDD9bcO&keytype=finite

An-Magritt Jensen (2015). Changes in Brideprice Payments in Christian and Muslim Villages of Kenya.

An-Magritt Jensen (2015). Changes in Brideprice Payments in Christian and Muslim Villages of Kenya.

An-Magritt Jensen (2015). Poverty, Gender and Fertility in Rural Kenya

An-Magritt Jensen (2015). Poverty, Gender and Fertility in Rural Kenya

 

Abstract

Despite a global decline in fertility, in Kenya, fertility has remained at a fairly high level. This article is based on two studies in rural villages in Western Province, Kenya in 1988 and 2011. In 1988, this province had the highest fertility level in the country. By 2011, fertility had fallen, but remained high in the national context. The analysis explores the interaction of poverty and gender relations in order to understand this. The Bukusu ethnic group, traditionally strongly patriarchal, is the focus of the article. Methodology and data collection followed the same basic principles in the two studies: collecting focused biographies among randomly sampled women (and a few men), and with information from community leaders. The 2011 case study re-interviewed some of the informants from 1988 and their descendants, supplemented with a few informants acquired through snowballing. Greater emphasis was now given to men. The findings show that, despite increasing education, people are facing even harsher realities in 2011 than they did 20 years ago. The Bukusu retain a form of patriarchy in which men's obligations have been reduced, while their privileges have been sustained. Persistent poverty has triggered risky behaviour in terms of excessive drinking and sex for money, both of which are likely to push up fertility. However, limiting births also represents a risk. Present fertility levels correspond to the significance of children for both women and men. But changes can be traced in women's attitudes, with a vision of less dependence on a husband.
 
Keywords

http://www.tandfonline.com/eprint/aS4KdvWG7JQwUixcihkH/full

Haugen & Brandth (2015) When Farm Couples Break Up: Gendered moralities, gossip, and the fear of stigmatisation in rural communities

Haugen & Brandth (2015) When Farm Couples Break Up: Gendered moralities, gossip, and the fear of stigmatisation in rural communities

Abstract


This article draws on interviews with farm women and men who have experienced a family break up to analyse their experiences of gender expectations in family farming, their fear of stigmatisation and their receipt of help from the rural community. The interviews illustrate their compliance with dominant constructions of rural gendered moralities. Men struggled to live up to the ideals of rural masculinity, which centre on hard work, self-sufficiency and mental strength. Women, who were strongly influenced by the moral norms of rural womanhood, managed to retain their feminine dignity as being caring and considerate of the family. Rural communities are often characterised as nurturing close relationships, but also as being pervaded by social control and gossip. Both women and men interpreted their break up as a private matter and deliberately avoided disclosing their relationship problems in order to protect themselves and their families from gossip, which made it difficult for them to seek and receive help from the rural community. While some of the hardships are recognisable for any divorced couple, the article is concerned with the rural farm particularities of the
divorce situation.

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Vadlamannati (2015) Fighting Corruption or Elections? The Politics of Anti-Corruption Policies in India: A Subnational Study

Vadlamannati (2015) Fighting Corruption or Elections? The Politics of Anti-Corruption Policies in India: A Subnational Study

Abstract:

This paper extends political budget cycles theory to corruption, where an incumbent government considers controlling corruption based purely on political considerations. Using panel data on 30 Indian states during the 1988–2009 period, I investigate whether the timing of elections affects the incumbent government’s efforts to control corruption. Consistent with the idea that an incumbent politician might exert greater effort to control corruption during election years, I find that scheduled elections (as opposed to unscheduled elections) are associated with an increase in the number of corruption cases registered by the respective state's anti-corruption agencies, although the substantive impact is small. Furthermore, I find this effect in ‘swing states’ where margin of victory for the incumbent in previous elections has been narrow. On the other hand, there is no effect of scheduled elections on corruption cases being investigated by anti-corruption agencies. Thus, the argument that Indian politicians engage in 'cheap talk' on controlling corruption, especially during election periods is suggestive at best.

Stig Arve Sæther (red) (2015). Trenerroller

Stig Arve Sæther (red) (2015). Trenerroller.

Trenerrollen er de senere årene blitt mer og mer omdiskutert, både innen topp- og breddeidrett. Rollen er sammensatt og mangfoldig og favner et bredt spekter av både idrettsfaglige og sosiale funksjoner.

Denne boka tar for seg flere av rollene både den profesjonelle og den frivillige treneren har. Boka tar for seg temaer som motivasjon og måloppnåelse, trening og kosthold/fedme samt trenerens evaluering av egen rolleutøvelse og utøvelse av trenerrollen utenfor idrettskonteksten. Den ser også nærmere på topptrenerrollen og bruk av media, og på den kvinnelige topptrenerens utfordringer. Boka gir et viktig forskningsbasert bidrag til å forstå hvordan en trener kan oppfylle disse rollene, og hva hun eller han kan gjøre for å mestre dem.

Boka er ment for studenter og lærere i idrettsutdanninger ved universiteter og høgskoler samt tillitsvalgte og trenere i foreninger, klubber og lag innen både topp- og breddeidretten i Norge.

Stig Arve Sæther er universitetslektor i idrettsvitenskap ved Institutt for sosiologi og statsvitenskap ved NTNU. Hans primære forskningsfelt er ungdomsidrett og talentutvikling, spesielt knyttet til fotball. Sæther har også erfaring som fotballtrener og har styreverv innen idretten.

http://fagbokforlaget.no/?isbn=9788245017717

Publikasjoner 2014

Rye (2014) The Western European Countryside From An Eastern European Perspective: Case Of Migrant Workers In Norwegian Agriculture

Rye (2014) The Western European Countryside From An Eastern European Perspective: Case Of Migrant Workers In Norwegian Agriculture

Abstract

In the wake of the EU enlargements in 2004 and 2007, large numbers of migrant workers from Eastern Europe in-migrated to the Western European countryside. In this paper I discuss how these migration streams in important ways challenge the dominant perspectives in contemporary rural studies, in particular their focus on lifestyle-related rural in-migration, on the post-productivist character of the countryside, and on the social constructions of the rural as idyllic space. These perspectives are examined based on qualitative material from in-depth interviews with 54 migrant workers in the Norwegian agricultural industry. These migrants’ everyday experiences in the rural West add important nuance to the dominant scholarly images of rural idylls and dullness, descriptions of rural communities as less marked by class structures than urban regions, and traditionalist presentations of rural social life and communities.

DOI: 10.2478/euco-2014-0018

Bailey, J. Looking for Sustainable Solutions in Salmon Aquaculture

Bailey, J. Looking for Sustainable Solutions in Salmon Aquaculture.  Etikk I praksis:  Nordic Journal of Applied Etihics (2014), 8(1), pp. 22-40.

Kulik,M., Eikemo, T.A., Regidor, E.,Menvielle, G., Mackenbach, J.P. for the EURO-GBD-SE Consortium. (2014). Does the pattern of socioeconomic inequalities in smoking in Western Europe depend on the choice of survey

Kulik,M., Eikemo, T.A., Regidor, E.,Menvielle, G., Mackenbach, J.P. for the EURO-GBD-SE Consortium. (2014). Does the pattern of socioeconomic inequalities in smoking in Western Europe depend on the choice of survey? International Journal of Public Health, 59 (4):587-97.

Cooray, Tamazin & Vadlamannati (2014) What drives FDI policy liberalization? An empirical investigation

Cooray, Tamazin & Vadlamannati (2014) What drives FDI policy liberalization? An empirical investigation

Abstract

Do countries compete for FDI by liberalizing policies favoring FDI? Our measure of policies favoring FDI is an event count of changes made by a country in a given year in the arena of approval procedures, sectoral restrictions, operational conditions, incentives, investment guarantees, foreign exchange, and corporate regulations to attract FDI. Using spatial econometric estimations on panel data for 148 countries over the 1992–2009 period, we find that favorable policy changes to attract FDI in one country are positively correlated with FDI policy changes elsewhere (i.e., policy changes favorable to FDI from other countries, increase the likelihood of liberalizing policies favoring FDI in the country in question). Developing countries compete more intensively among themselves for investment via liberalization of policies favoring FDI. These results are robust to alternative weighting schemes, estimation methods, sample size, and controlling for the possibility of endogeneity.

Tiller, Hansen, Richards & Strand (2014) Work segmentation in the Norwegian salmon industry: The application of segmented labor market theory to work migrants on the island community of Frøya, Norway

Tiller, Hansen, Richards & Strand (2014) Work segmentation in the Norwegian salmon industry: The application of segmented labor market theory to work migrants on the island community of Frøya, Norway

Abstract

Work migration is increasing in Norway, particularly in the production sector of the aquaculture industry. This sector is growing rapidly and manual labor needed in the industry is consistently being sought through Eastern European networks and temp-agencies. This article looks at the island community of Frøya, in Sør Trøndelag in Norway, where around 20% of the population is of foreign descent, and where stakeholders in the production line experience a lack of upward mobility due to their lack of Norwegian language skills, and the insecure nature of their employment status. The capacity of the island community to adapt to a 3-fold increase in aquaculture production will depend on this segment of society as well being able to adjust, and on their inclusiveness in society. Based on a stakeholder driven workshop looking at the perceptions of a set of foreign workers in the aquaculture industry,segmented labor market theory was applied to the experience of the workers. The priority issues of the migrant population of Frøya involved in the aquaculture industry was also explained, and their wish for upward mobility and job security, as well as inclusiveness in society elaborated upon. This upward mobility, however, would lead to the bottom segment of the labor market on Frøya – the aquaculture production line – to have to be filled with another lower segment group of workers.

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Stig Arve Sæther & Nils Petter Aspvik (2014) Seasonal Variation in Objectively Assessed Physical Activity among Young Norwegian Talented Soccer Players: A Description of Daily Physical Activity Level

Stig Arve Sæther & Nils Petter Aspvik (2014) Seasonal Variation in Objectively Assessed Physical Activity among Young Norwegian Talented Soccer Players: A Description of Daily Physical Activity Level

ABSTRACT

‘Practise makes perfect' is a well-known expression in most sports, including top-level soccer. However, a high training and match load increases the risk for injury, overtraining and burnout. With the use of accelerometers and a self-report questionnaire, the aim of this study was to describe talented players' physical activity (PA) level. Data were collected three times during the 2011 Norwegian Football season (March, June and October). The accelerometer output, counts·min–1 (counts per unit time registered), reports the daily PA-level for young talented soccer players. Results showed a stable PA-level across the season (March: 901.2 counts·min–1, June: 854.9 counts·min–1, October: 861.5 counts·min–1). Furthermore, comparison of five different training sessions across the season showed that the PA-level ranged from 2435.8 to 3745.4 counts·min–1. A one-way ANOVA showed no significant differences between the three measured weeks during the soccer season (p≤0.814). However, the training sessions in January had a significantly higher PA-level than those in June and October (p≤0.001). Based on these results, we discuss how potential implications of PA-level affect factors such as risk of injury, overtraining and burnout. We argue that player development must be seen as part of an overall picture in which club training and match load should be regarded as one of many variables influencing players' PA-level.

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Trondsen, Bolle, Stensland & Tjora (2014) Video-confidence: a qualitative exploration of videoconferencing for psychiatric emergencies

Trondsen, Bolle, Stensland & Tjora (2014) Video-confidence: a qualitative exploration of videoconferencing for psychiatric emergencies

Abstract

Background

In psychiatric emergencies in rural areas the availability of psychiatrists are limited. Therefore, tele-psychiatry, via real-time videoconferencing (VC), has been developed to provide advanced consultative services to areas that lack psychiatrists. However, there is limited research on the use of VC for psychiatric emergencies. The University Hospital of North Norway has been the first hospital in Norway to implement this type of service by developing a new on-call system for psychiatric emergency practice through which psychiatrists are accessible by telephone and VC 24 hours a day for consultations with patients and nurses at three regional psychiatric centres. This study explores patients', psychiatrists' and nurses' experiences of using VC for psychiatric emergencies, as well as how the technology influenced their confidence.

Methods

In this study, we used a qualitative explorative research design. With a particular focus on users' experiences of VC, we conducted 29 semi-structured interviews with patients, psychiatrists and nurses who had participated in a VC consultation in at least one psychiatric emergency.

Results

Our findings show that access to the VC system increased the experience of confidence in challenging psychiatric emergencies in four ways: (1) by strengthening patient involvement during the psychiatric specialist's assessment, (2) by reducing uncertainty, (3) by sharing responsibility for decisions and (4) by functioning as a safety net even when VC was not used.

Conclusions

This study has demonstrated that an emergency psychiatric service delivered by VC may improve the confidence of psychiatrists, nurses and patients in challenging psychiatric emergencies. VC can serve as an effective tool for ensuring decentralised high-quality psychiatric services for emergency care.

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Iversen, Landmark & Tjora (2014) The peace of paper: Patient lists as work tools

Iversen, Landmark & Tjora (2014) The peace of paper: Patient lists as work tools

Abstract

Introduction

Paper-based documents are subject to problems related to storage, loss, distribution and editing. Many organizations have introduced ICT-based processes to reduce the use of paper as primary documentation. Nevertheless, paper documents are still being used in healthcare.

Purpose

To better understand this situation, we have studied the use of paper-based patient lists in two wards in a Norwegian hospital that has ‘gone digital'. We seek to answer the question: "Why is it that paper-based patient lists are maintained in the ward of a hospital going digital?"

Methods

Participant observations and semi-structured interviews with stakeholders.

Results

Patient lists allow nurses to immediately record, retrieve, and share relevant patient information at the point of care in a way that is not immediately available through the EPR system. Paper-based tools continue to serve purposes beyond and outside what is currently supported by current electronic information systems.

DOI: 10.1016/j.ijmedinf.2014.09.008

Halvard Buhaug m.fl. (2014) One effect to rule them all? A comment on climate and conflict

Halvard Buhaug m.fl. (2014) One effect to rule them all? A comment on climate and conflict

Abstract

A recent Climatic Change review article reports a remarkable convergence of scientific evidence for a link between climatic events and violent intergroup conflict, thus departing markedly from other contemporary assessments of the empirical literature. This commentary revisits the review in order to understand the discrepancy. We believe the origins of the disagreement can be traced back to the review article's underlying quantitative meta-analysis, which suffers from shortcomings with respect to sample selection and analytical coherence. A modified assessment that addresses some of these problems suggests that scientific research on climate and conflict to date has produced mixed and inconclusive results.

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Susanne Therese Hansen & Nicholas Marsh (2014) Normative power and organized hypocrisy: European Union member states' arms export to Libya

Susanne Therese Hansen & Nicholas Marsh (2014) Normative power and organized hypocrisy: European Union member states' arms export to Libya

Abstract

The 2011 Libyan civil war prompted a reassessment of the normative foundation of the EU's conventional arms export control regime as armaments manufactured in Europe were used by Gaddafi's forces during the war. The EU's foreign policy identity is based, partly, upon a common approach to arms export involving respect for common criteria for export licences. Yet, prior to the civil war, considerable amounts of military equipment had been exported by member states to Libya, notwithstanding grounds for restraint on the basis of several of the criteria. This article traces member states' arms export to Libya during 2005–2010 to explore whether member states favoured restraint or export promotion. It concludes that although aware of the risks of exporting, in a competitive market for military goods, member states sought commercial advantage over restraint, and comprehensively violated export control principles. This casts doubts on assertions of the EU acting as a "normative power".

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Arve Hjelseth & Jorid Hovden (2014) Negotiating the status of women's football in Norway. An analysis of online supporter discourses

Arve Hjelseth & Jorid Hovden (2014) Negotiating the status of women's football in Norway. An analysis of online supporter discourses

Abstract

Whilst women's football in Norway has enjoyed sporting success, media interest is still limited. It attracts few spectators and TV viewers. In this article, we analyse how online supporters of men's football view and discuss the status of women's football. This is done through a discourse analysis based on the conceptual framework of feminist theory. An electronic discussion group on football serves as the source of data. Two main discourses are identified: The dominant discourse associates football to "masculine" standards and core masculine values, and women's football represents a threat to this perspective. Women's football is "othered" by a continuous comparison to men's football as well as by strategies of trivialisation and sexualisation. The counter-discourse emphasises women's right to play football on equal terms with men and argues that women's football should be assessed on its own terms. The counter-discourse opposes the arguments of the dominant discourse by challenging the taken for granted-assumptions as well as the dominant derogatory notions of women's football. But all in all, most discussants construct women's football as a sport trapped in a vicious circle, which deserves its current lack of recognition.

 

Ingeborg Grønning (2014) Fedmefortellinger: Om vektnedgang og biografiske opprykk

Ingeborg Grønning (2014) Fedmefortellinger: Om vektnedgang og biografiske opprykk

Sammendrag

Et økende antall personer gjennomgår vektreduserende behandling i Norge. Denne artikkelen presenterer fedmefortellingene til 22 personer som har gjennomgått vektoperasjon eller livsstilsendring. Informantene har klare formeninger om hvordan de ble overvektige og forklarer i hovedsak overvektens opprinnelse med somatiske forklaringer, psykososiale forklaringer, eller dårlige vaner og overspising. Informantenes redsler, drømmer og mål danner bakgrunn for diskusjonen som viser hvordan informantene gjennomgår biografiske opprykk etter som livsstilen blir sunnere og formen bedre.

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Camilla K. Tveiten & Per Morten Schiefloe (2014) Risk images in a changing high-risk industry

Camilla K. Tveiten & Per Morten Schiefloe (2014) Risk images in a changing high-risk industry

ABSTRACT

We present the study of the forming and development of risk images in a high-risk industry when introducing advanced new operational technologies. The case studied is the planning and implementation of integrated operations (IO) in offshore oil and gas production. We define a risk image as a combination of hazard identification and risk perception. The informants were representatives from different groups involved in the evaluation or development of IO on the Norwegian continental shelf. Data were collected through interviews and observations in workshops and of text representations. The analysis of the data revealed three groups of risk images: technological optimism, traditional risk images and reconfigured risk images. The individual risk images seem to be primarily connected to participation in distributed communities of knowing, operating on different arenas. These constructed risk images at the same time may act both to allocate attention to some hazards and to divert attention from others. We conclude that we need further research on risk images among those that take part in risk appraisal.

Rolstadås, Tommelein, Schiefloe & Ballard (2014) Understanding project success through analysis of project management approach

Rolstadås, Tommelein, Schiefloe & Ballard (2014) Understanding project success through analysis of project management approach

Abstract:

– The purpose of this paper is to show that project success is dependent on the project management approach selected, relative to the challenges posed by the project, and to develop an analytical model for analyzing the performance of the project organization.
 

– The research is based on literature review, model development, interviews, and case studies.

– The findings define two different approaches in project management: The prescriptive approach focuses on the formal qualities of the project organization, including governing documentation and procedures. The adaptive approach focuses on the process of developing and improving a project organization, project culture and team commitment. The two approaches have been identified through studies of three different case projects. An analytical model, referred to as the Pentagon model, has been applied for analyzing the performance of the project organization and explaining the project management approach. The model focuses on five different organizational aspects: structure, technologies, culture, social relations and networks, and interaction.
 
Research limitations/implications

– The research is limited to megaprojects and to project management success.

– It is suggested that project teams consider and select their project management approach at project initiation, and accordingly decide on relevant success factors to focus on. The adapted Pentagon model can be applied to develop the project management organization and assess its performance in the course of project delivery.
  – The contribution of the research is the application of the analytical model, and the identification as well as illustration of the prescriptive, vs adaptive management approach.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/IJMPB-09-2013-0048

Rye (2014) Konsistente karakterer? En undersøkelse av sensorreliabilitet i sosiologifaget

Rye (2014) Konsistente karakterer? En undersøkelse av sensorreliabilitet i sosiologifaget

Sammedrag

I kjølvannet av Bologna-prosessen arbeides det med å standardisere karakterpraksisene ved de høyere lærestedene i Norge. I denne artikkelen presenteres erfaringene fra et vurderingsarbeid innen sosiologifaget, der et seksmanns sensurpanel hver for seg og kollektivt vurderte tolv bacheloroppgaver fra seks læresteder. Resultatene viser til dels betydelige avvik i hvordan eksamensarbeidene ble vurdert. I seks av ti tilfeller satte panelsensorene en annen karakter enn den opprinnelige. Mellom deltakerne i sensurpanelet er det også betydelige forskjeller, både i nivå og rangering av oppgavene. Det er likevel sjelden snakk om store avvik, som i de fleste tilfellene dreier seg om ett trinn på karakterskalaene. Erfaringene fra sosiologifaget styrkes av tilsvarende undersøkelser i andre samfunnsvitenskapelige fag. Forskjellene i sensorenes vurderinger knyttes til mangelen på eksplisitte standarder for hva som representerer god akademisk kvalitet, hvordan studentenes arbeider skal vurderes opp mot disse standardene og endelig hva de forskjellige karakterene representerer – om C er en «god» eller «dårlig» karakter. Skal Bologna-prosessens mål om enhetlige nasjonale og europeiske karaktersystemer innfris, er det derfor behov for mer eksplisitte retningslinjer for karaktersetting. Det fordres også for utvikling av uformelle kulturer som bidrar til at forskjellige sensorer faktisk standardiserer sine karakterpraksiser i det daglige sensorarbeidet.

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Trondsen & Tjora (2014) "Communal Normalization in an Online Self-Help Group for Adolescents With a Mentally Ill Parent

Trondsen & Tjora (2014) "Communal Normalization in an Online Self-Help Group for Adolescents With a Mentally Ill Parent

Abstract

Although implications of parental mental illness are well documented, most children of mentally ill parents are left to manage their family situation with limited information and support. We explored the role of a Norwegian online self-help group for adolescents (aged 15 to 18) with a mentally ill parent. Through in-depth interviews with 13 participants, we found that the online self-help group provided "communal normalization" by which participants, through communication in the forum, made sense of everyday experiences and emotions arising from having a mentally ill parent. We identified three main aspects of this process—recognizability, openness, and agency—all of which were important for the adolescents' efforts to obtain support, to be supportive, and to handle everyday life situations better. Communal normalization might provide resources for significantly improving the participants' life situations, and could demonstrate similar potential for users in other situations characterized by stigma, loneliness, silence, and health worries.

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Knutsen (2014) "Western Approaches"

Knutsen (2014) "Western Approaches"

Abstract

The Eurocentric Conception of World Politics is a fabulous but depressing genealogy of the modern study of International Relations (IR). The book is impressively comprehensive in content, It is complex in design. It exposes the self-serving dogmatism which have always marked mainstream IR literature. While admiring the scholarly qualities of the book, this review wonders if its critical exposure is excessive? Is there any scholarly approach in IR which is not crippled by its comprehensive condemnation? Does this book, which is written in the European tradition of Critical Theory, ultimately become a victim of its own sweeping criticism of the Western canon?

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Brandth & Haugen (2014) "Embodying the Rural Idyll in Farm Tourist Hosting"

Brandth & Haugen (2014) "Embodying the Rural Idyll in Farm Tourist Hosting"

 

ABSTRACT

This article is concerned with service work conducted on farms, and it explores how men and women's bodies are involved in producing and mediating positive aspects of the rural. The main question is whether the two types of work, farming and tourist hosting, are represented by compatible or conflicting bodies. The analysis is based on interviews with couples from 20 farms. Findings show that farm heritage and culture is central to the farm tourist product, and that dress and appearance, as signifiers of both a farming lifestyle and professional tourist hosting, hold fewer tensions than could be expected from the taken-forgranted difference between the two types of work. Relations between hosts and guests in the different spaces of nature and the home disclose gendered challenges. Men need to incorporate caring aspects in their wilderness activities. Women struggle to balance their own needs and emotions with tourists' expectations – as the personal and the home are commercialised as part of the rural idyll. Interestingly, as service work expands into the agricultural sector, our findings indicate that these two different types of work may gradually lose their distinct embodied differences.

DOI: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/15022250.2014.899136

Toch et al. (2014) "All Part of the Job? The Contribution of the Psychosocial and Physical Work Environment to Health Inequalities in Europe and the European Health Divide."

Toch et al. (2014) "All Part of the Job? The Contribution of the Psychosocial and Physical Work Environment to Health Inequalities in Europe and the European Health Divide."

Abstract:

This study is the first to examine the contribution of both psychosocial and physical risk factors to occupational inequalities in self-assessed health in Europe. Data from 27 countries were obtained from the 2010 European Working Conditions Survey for men and women aged 16 to 60 (n = 21,803). Multilevel logistic regression analyses (random intercept) were applied, estimating odds ratios of reporting less than good health. Analyses indicate that physical working conditions account for a substantial proportion of occupational inequalities in health in both Central/Eastern and Western Europe. Physical, rather than psychosocial, working conditions seem to have the largest effect on self-assessed health in manual classes. For example, controlling for physical working conditions reduced the inequalities in the prevalence of "less than good health" between the lowest (semi- and unskilled manual workers) and highest (higher controllers) occupational groups in Europe by almost 50 percent (Odds Ratio 1.87, 95% Confidence Interval 1.62-2.16 to 1.42, 1.23-1.65). Physical working conditions contribute substantially to health inequalities across "post-industrial" Europe, with women in manual occupations being particularly vulnerable, especially those living in Central/Eastern Europe. An increased political and academic focus on physical working conditions is needed to explain and potentially reduce occupational inequalities in health.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24919305

Halvorsen & Martinussen (2014) "The geography of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: A population-based study of Norway"

Halvorsen & Martinussen (2014) "The geography of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: A population-based study of Norway"

Abstract

Research on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) that includes geographic information is important in order to improve care and appropriate allocation of resources to patients suffering from COPD. The purpose of this study is to investigate the geography of COPD and factors associated with the spatial patterns of COPD prevalence. Particular emphasis is put on the role of the local socioeconomic environment. Utilising information from the Norwegian Prescription Database on all lung medication prescribed in 2009 we identified 62,882 persons with COPD in the Norwegian population. Patterns of spatial clustering in the prevalence of COPD are clearly evident, even when age and gender are controlled for. Gender and age are strongly related to COPD risk. Socio-economic characteristics of the community such as education and unemployment are also significantly correlated with COPD risk. People living in rural parts of the country are generally associated with less risk than people in urban settings, and in particular people living in communities with high levels of farm and fisheries employment.

Buhaug, Levy & Urdal (2014) "50 Years of Peace Research: An Introduction to the Journal of Peace Research Anniversary Special Issue"

Buhaug, Levy & Urdal (2014) "50 Years of Peace Research: An Introduction to the Journal of Peace Research Anniversary Special Issue"

Abstract

Established in 1964, the Journal of Peace Research (JPR) celebrates 50 years. This anniversary special issue of the journal offers broad reviews of research areas that have been central both to the journal and to the field of peace and conflict research generally. An opening article co-authored by long-time editor Nils Petter Gleditsch offers a historical
view on peace research and tracks trends in the use of ‘peace' and ‘violence' in titles of JPR across the first 49 volumes of the journal. Opening the review article section, two contributions address key thematic areas for the journal. Few if any subjects have attracted more attention in the study of international relations during the second half of JPR's first 50 years than the democratic peace, and in the extension of this subject, the broader debate about the liberal peace. Additional articles review the status and propose future developments in the study of war and its relationship with territory, ethnicity, ideology and natural resources. Another key historical topic associated with the journal concerns the economic cost of military conflict, while more recent research fields covered include terrorism and human rights, topics that have grown to become major JPR niches. Reflecting the methodological contributions by JPR, two articles focus on challenges of contemporary quantitative political analysis and progress in peace and conflict data collection. Finally, this special issue includes a review of research on international mediation in armed conflicts.

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Tiller et.al. (2014) "Assessing Stakeholder Adaptive Capacity to Salmon Aquaculture in Norway"

Tiller et.al. (2014) "Assessing Stakeholder Adaptive Capacity to Salmon Aquaculture in Norway"

Abstract

This paper explores the socio-ecological effects of increased aquaculture/farmed fish production, around the island group of Frøya in Trøndelag, Norway, as a result of new licenses accorded to the industry. This is investigated from a stakeholder perspective by assessing the adaptive capacity of selected stakeholder groups through workshops combining Scenario Analysis, Systems Thinking and Bayesian Belief Network and by developing conceptual frameworks and structural diagrams that visualize the perceived effects of the industry on the given stakeholder system. This adaptive capacity is critical to explore before a de facto industry expansion. This is because context-specific adaptation policies and measures can reduce a given stakeholder group´s vulnerability to negative consequences of industry expansion. Policy makers' a priori knowledge of these variables can lessen conflicts that may arise as a result of stakeholder discontent with top-down approaches to fisheries management and can also bring a legitimizing aspect to the political process leading to integrated coastal zone management (ICZM) in the region for affected stakeholder groups, possibly lessening simmering conflicts.

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Tiller et.al. (2014) "Something fishy: Assessing stakeholder resilience to increasing jellyfish jellyfish (Periphylla periphylla) in Trondheimsfjord, Norway"

Tiller et.al. (2014) "Something fishy: Assessing stakeholder resilience to increasing jellyfish jellyfish (Periphylla periphylla) in Trondheimsfjord, Norway"

Abstract

The following article outlines of an assessment of the adaptive capacity of stakeholder groups in the Trondheimsfjord region to the impacts related to local changes in Periphylla periphylla (jellyfish) concentrations. This paper addresses the interaction between the socio-ecological system and the marine ecosystem and the management challenges inherent therein by focusing on a serious management problem that is occurring in several Norwegian fjords. This is the recent superabundance of the lower trophic level jellyfish species P. periphylla, which competes with commercial Norwegian fish species for a wide variety of pelagic organisms including redfeed (Calanus finmarchicus), a key species in the coastal ecosystem and a particularly important food item for all codfishes in coastal waters. P. periphylla has, however, also some properties that might make it a valuable new resource in Norwegian waters, namely its potential for being a new and abundant source of collagen. The question addressed here is how to manage this jellyfish species in a manner that is rational from both socio-political and ecological perspectives, exploring stakeholder perceptions concerning their adaptation options and capacity to implement these options to this new resource and management mitigation options based on a set of stakeholder driven future scenarios.

Lie & Aalberg 2014 "Fra biologidiskurs til miljødiskurs? Pressedekningen av minoriteter i norske aviser fra 1902–2010"

Lie & Aalberg 2014 "Fra biologidiskurs til miljødiskurs? Pressedekningen av minoriteter i norske aviser fra 1902–2010"

Abstract

Har pressedekningen gått fra en statisk biologidiskurs med rot i rasetenkning til en mer dynamisk miljødiskurs med basis i en -kulturtenkning over tid? Innholdsanalyser av avisartikler fra perioden 1902–2010 avdekker at pressedekningen tidlig i perioden hyppig henviser til biologiske aspekter ved minoritetene, mens miljøaspekter i større grad preger den siste perioden. Hen-visningene til minoritetens kultur i periodens siste del er imidlertid de mest statiske, mens tidlige referanser til hudfarge faktisk er -mindre statisk enn en ren rasebasert tenkning skulle tilsi.

http://www.idunn.no/ts/nmt/2014/01

Aalberg & van Aelst (2014) "Who Is Afraid of Pre-election Polls? How Perceptions of Polls Influence Support for Polling Regulations among Elites"

Aalberg & van Aelst (2014) "Who Is Afraid of Pre-election Polls? How Perceptions of Polls Influence Support for Polling Regulations among Elites"

Introduction

Opinion polls have become a highly prominent feature in today's news coverage of political affairs, and especially so before major elections (Holtz-Bacha & Strömbäck, 2012). The growing importance of polls in the news media has triggered mainly two scholarly debates: One concerning pollster accuracy and the quality of poll coverage in the news; the other about the effect these polls have on the electorate. Among political elites, a third debate is perhaps equally important, and relates to the question whether legislators should regulate the use of preelection polls. Petersen (2012, p. 59) points to the rise in the number of countries where publication of results from preelection polls is banned. According to a recent World Association For Public Opinion Research (WAPOR) study among 85 countries across the globe, almost half have some sort of ‘‘blackout period'' for preelection polls during which polling results may not be released to the public (Chung, 2012). In the past decade, 11 countries liberalized their restrictions, but more countries strengthened their restrictions. In Mexico, for instance, where restrictions had already been imposed, a total ban on publishing any poll results during national election campaigns was proposed (WAPOR, 2012). In this study, we examine the fear of preelection polls, and ask if and why significant groups of elites support the imposition of a ban, even in Western democracies where there is no such ban today. We investigate variations between countries and types of elites and how perceptions of poll effects and pollster accuracy may explain support for a poll prohibition. The results are based on surveys conducted among political journalists and members of the Belgian, Dutch, Norwegian, and Swedish parliaments. The views of national legislators are of particular significance because they will ultimately vote to implement a poll prohibition. Political journalists are also an important group, not only because they choose to publish preelection polls, but because they have the power to steer the debate when discussions on prohibitions arise. In the four North European countries included in this study, there are no current restrictions on preelection polls, but from time to time, debates occasionally occur concerning prohibition on publishing preelection poll results.1 We commence by discussing two assumptions that are often put forward in the literature: (1) Preelection polls influence voters and politicians; (2) that preelection polls in the news misinform the electorate.

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Haugen, Brandth & Follo (2014) Farm, family, and myself: farm women dealing with family break-up

Haugen, Brandth & Follo (2014) Farm, family, and myself: farm women dealing with family break-up

Abstract

Despite the rising divorce rate among farm families in Norway, surprisingly little research has examined these break-ups. Drawing on interviews with farm women whose marital or cohabiting relationships broke down, we explore the contradictions between individualization and the moral responsibility embedded in the patriarchal discourse of the family farm. We ask whether farm family dissolution represents a break with patriarchal ideology and practice, and thus threatens the survival of the family farm. A key finding is the struggle to balance establishing new lives for themselves with meeting their felt obligations to the farm. None of the women exercised their full legal rights if they worried that it might destroy the farm business. By ensuring the survival of the farm and the well-being of their children, the women's handling of divorce conforms to cultural conventions and protects the family farm.

DOI: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/0966369X.2013.855708

Publikasjoner 2013

Smeby og Brandth (2013) Mellom hjem og barnehage: Likestilling i det tredje skiftet

Smeby og Brandth (2013) Mellom hjem og barnehage: Likestilling i det tredje skiftet

Abstract

Basert på et intervjumateriale med foreldrepar som begge jobber fulltid og har et mål om likestilt arbeidsfordeling i familien, utforsker denne artikkelen hvordan det usynlige tilretteleggingsarbeidet, det tredje skiftet, fordeles mellom mor og far. Fokus er på ansvaret for oppgaver som handler om barnas kontakt med omverdenen – barnehage og barnebursdager, der familiens praksis er «på display». Spørsmålet er på hvilken måte fedrene tar ansvaret for planlegging og regissering. Vi finner at en fast fordeling av oppgavene, mer enn en flytende, har større potensial for å involvere fedrene i hele prosessen. Vi finner også at mødrenes tilbaketrekning fra det løpende helhetsansvaret i familien skaper rom for fedrenes ansvarstaking.

Federico, B., Mackenbach, J.P., Eikemo, T.A., Sebastiani, G., Marinacci, C., Costa, G., & Kunst, E.A. (2013). Educational inequalities in mortality in Northern, Mid and Southern Italy and the contribution of smoking.

Federico, B., Mackenbach, J.P., Eikemo, T.A., Sebastiani, G., Marinacci, C., Costa, G., & Kunst, E.A. (2013). Educational inequalities in mortality in Northern, Mid and Southern Italy and the contribution of smoking. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 67 (7), 603-609.

Hoffmann, R., Eikemo, T.A, Kulhánová, I, Dahl, E., Deboosere, P., Dzúrová, D., van Oyen, H., Rychtařiková, J., Strand, B.H., & Mackenbach, J.P. (2013). The potential impact of a social redistribution of specific risk factors on socioeconomic inequalities in mortality - illustration of a method based on Population Attributable Fractions.

Hoffmann, R., Eikemo, T.A, Kulhánová, I, Dahl, E., Deboosere, P., Dzúrová, D., van Oyen, H., Rychtařiková, J., Strand, B.H., & Mackenbach, J.P. (2013). The potential impact of a social redistribution of specific risk factors on socioeconomic inequalities in mortality - illustration of a method based on Population Attributable Fractions. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 67 (1), 56-62.

Mäki, N., Martikainen, P., Eikemo, T.A., Menvielle, G., Lundberg, O., Östergren,O., Jasilionis, D., Mackenbach, J.P. & the EURO-GBD-SE consortium. (2013). Educational differences in disability-free life expectancy: a comparative study of long-standing activity limitation in eight European countries

Mäki, N., Martikainen, P., Eikemo, T.A., Menvielle, G., Lundberg, O., Östergren,O., Jasilionis, D., Mackenbach, J.P. & the EURO-GBD-SE consortium. (2013). Educational differences in disability-free life expectancy: a comparative study of long-standing activity limitation in eight European countries. Social Science & Medicine, 94 (1), 1-8.

Kulik, M.C., Menvielle, G Hoffmann, R. Eikemo, T.A, Bopp, M., Jasilionis, D., Kulhánová, I, Leinsalu, M., Martikainen, P., Östergren, O., Mackenbach, J.P. for th EURO-GBD-SE Consortium (2013). Educational inequalities in three smoking-related causes of death in 18 European Countries.

Kulik, M.C., Menvielle, G Hoffmann, R. Eikemo, T.A, Bopp, M., Jasilionis, D., Kulhánová, I, Leinsalu, M., Martikainen, P., Östergren, O., Mackenbach, J.P. for th EURO-GBD-SE Consortium (2013). Educational inequalities in three smoking-related causes of death in 18 European Countries. Nicotine and Tobacco Research, 16 (5), 507-18.

 

 

 

Cushion, Aalberg & Thomas (2013) Towards a rolling news logic in fixed time bulletins? A comparative analysis of journalistic interventions in the US, UK and Norway

Cushion, Aalberg & Thomas (2013) Towards a rolling news logic in fixed time bulletins? A comparative analysis of journalistic interventions in the US, UK and Norway

Abstract

Contemporary news media operate in an increasingly competitive environment with fast-changing technologies facilitating more immediate forms of communication. In doing so, the logic of ‘old' news formats is being challenged. On television, for example, viewers no longer have to wait for morning or evening bulletins, since rolling news channels deliver an instant fix. This study carries out a content analysis of the major news bulletins in the US, UK and Norway, asking whether the wider culture of journalism has impacted on the format and style of coverage. The study finds that certain journalistic interventions – which inject a sense of immediacy (reporting live), of pace (constant updates) or extend geographic space (on location) – routinely appear on fixed time television bulletins to different degrees cross-nationally. The authors suggest this represents an adoption of rolling news logic – with bulletins incorporating the urgency and liveness displayed in national news cultures – delivering a more interpretive and instant form of communication than pre-edited or scripted news packages.

 

Strabac, Aalberg & Valenta (2013) “Attitudes towards Muslim Immigrants: Evidence from Survey Experiments across Four Countries”

Strabac, Aalberg & Valenta (2013) “Attitudes towards Muslim Immigrants: Evidence from Survey Experiments across Four Countries”

Abstract

There has been much negative focus on Muslims in public debates in the West and it is a matter of great interest to examine whether Muslims are particularly exposed to prejudice and hostility. Since it is known that immigrants tend to be exposed to prejudice, and practically all Muslims living in Western countries are either immigrants or are of immigrant origin, it is useful to analyse whether Muslims are viewed more negatively than immigrants in general. Using data from survey experiments conducted in Norway, Sweden, the USA and the United Kingdom in 2009, we find that Muslim immigrants were not more negatively viewed than immigrants in general. In the two countries that have experienced large-scale attacks by Islamic extremists, the USA and the United Kingdom, the expressed levels of anti-Muslim attitudes were actually lower than the levels of general anti-immigrant attitudes. We find that individual traits that influence general xenophobia also influence anti-Muslim attitudes.

DOI: 10.1080/1369183X.2013.831542

Spilker & Höier (2013) Technologies of Piracy? Exploring the Interplay between Commercialism and Idealism in the Development of MP3 and DivX

Spilker & Höier (2013) Technologies of Piracy? Exploring the Interplay between Commercialism and Idealism in the Development of MP3 and DivX

Abstract

This article compares the development of the two central "piracy standards"—MP3 (sound) and DivX (audiovisual content)—analyzing the actors, strategies, and motivations involved in their inception and diffusion. Until recently, the main focus in the research literature investigating the relationships between commercialism and idealism in the development of the Internet has been on the clashes and confrontations between two supposedly incompatible worldviews. In accordance with newer approaches such as Castells and Cardoso's (2012) and Lobato and Thomas' (2012), we challenge this dichotomous and irreconcilable picture by investigating the borderlands and crossings between the two sides. As we argue, the cases of MP3 and DivX are strategic for beginning the exploration of these overlooked dynamics. The actor-network theory concepts of "displacement," "translation," and "immutable mobiles" are employed to trace the various phases in the propagation of the two standards. By following MP3 and DivX through their displacements and translations, we argue that they have come to form two different types of moveable objects, displaying and exemplifying some of the breadth of border-crossing dynamics.

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Rye & Holm (2013) Utenlandsk arbeidskraft som avviklings- eller opptrappingsstrategi?

Rye & Holm (2013) Utenlandsk arbeidskraft som avviklings- eller opptrappingsstrategi?

Sammendrag

De siste tiårene er produksjonsstrukturen i landbruket betydelig rasjonalisert, blant annet gjennom en reduksjon fra 60 000 til 46 000 driftsenheter, og ytterligere konsentrasjon av produksjonen er ventet. Samtidig øker bruken av utenlandsk arbeidskraft. I denne artikkelen diskuteres sammenhengen mellom disse utviklingstrekkene. To hypoteser drøftes: i) Økt arbeidsinnvandring bremser nedleggelsestakten, og ii) økt arbeidsinnvandring forsterker nedleggelsestakten. Artikkelens analyser, som bygger på materiale fra surveyen «Trender i norsk landbruk 2012», gir primært støtte til den første hypotesen om at økt arbeidsinnvandring forsterker utviklingen mot færre driftsenheter i det norske landbruket, men viser samtidig at sammenhengene er ikke entydige.

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Tiffen et.al. (2013) Sources in the news

Tiffen et.al. (2013) Sources in the news

Abstract

In analysing the news media's role in serving the functions associated with democratic citizenship, the number, diversity and range of news sources are central. Research conducted on sources has overwhelmingly focused on individual national systems. However, studying variations in news source patterns across national environments enhances understanding of the media's role. This article is based on a larger project, "Media System, Political Context and Informed Citizenship: A Comparative Study", involving 11 countries. It seeks, first, to identify differences between countries in the sources quoted in the news; second, to establish whether there are consistent differences across countries between types of media in their sourcing patterns; and, third, to trace any emergent consistent patterns of variation between different types of organization across different countries. A range of findings related to news media source practices is discussed that highlights variations and patterns across different media and countries, thereby questioning common generalizations about the use of sources by newspapers and public service broadcasters. Finally, a case is made for comparative media research that helps enhance the news media's key role as a social institution dedicated to informed citizenship.

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Iyengar et. al (2013) Do Attitudes About Immigration Predict Willingness to Admit Individual Immigrants?: A Cross-National Test of the Person-Positivity Bias

Iyengar et. al (2013) Do Attitudes About Immigration Predict Willingness to Admit Individual Immigrants?: A Cross-National Test of the Person-Positivity Bias

Abstract

This paper demonstrates that citizens in seven advanced industrialized democracies generally oppose more open immigration policies, but stand ready to admit individual immigrants. Using an experimental design, we demonstrate the applicability of the "personpositivity bias" to immigration and investigate the effects of economic and cultural "deservingness" on evaluations of individual immigrants.

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Ramet (2013) Trajectories of Post-Communist Transformation: Myths and Rival Theories about Change in Central and Southeastern Europe

Ramet (2013) Trajectories of Post-Communist Transformation: Myths and Rival Theories about Change in Central and Southeastern Europe

 

The collapse of communism in Central and Southeastern Europe has given rise to various myths and debates. This article undertakes to examine and debunk two myths and to summarise and assess four debates. The two myths are, first, that no one foresaw the collapse of communism or offered any clear prediction of that eventuality in the decade preceding 1989, and, second, that what occurred in the region between 1989 and 1991 could not be described as a revolution since, allegedly, it was masterminded by the communist authorities themselves; this article refutes these two myths. The four debates concern whether to describe the processes of change since 1989 as a transition or a transformation, what to count as democratic consolidation, and what to understand as the reasons for differences in paths of transition (or transformation), and as reasons for differences in the level of success with democratisation. The article includes some comparative measures of regional progress since 1989.

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Isaksen & Jakobsen (2013) Maktfaktor eller medløper? - En revidering av Israel-lobbyen og amerikansk Midtøsten-politikk

Isaksen & Jakobsen (2013) Maktfaktor eller medløper? - En revidering av Israel-lobbyen og amerikansk Midtøsten-politikk

Sammendrag

I 2007 publiserte Mearsheimer og Walt boken The Israel Lobby and U.S. Foreign Policy hvor de argumenterer for at den amerikanske Israel-lobbyen har fått gjennomslag for sine egne interesser på bekostning av USAs. I denne artikkelen undersøker vi gyldigheten av dette argumentet. Vårt funn er at Israel-lobbyen fremstår som mektigere enn den er. Empirisk har vi undersøkt saker av betydning for amerikansk Midtøsten-politikk, der både amerikanske og israelske myndigheter har hatt interesser. Vårt argument er at USAs utenrikspolitikk ofte er på linje med den israelske i utgangspunktet, og at det derfor ikke er store interessekonflikter mellom USA, Israel og Israel-lobbyen. I de tilfeller hvor USA og Israel har motstridende interesser, blir derimot lobbyens begrensede innflytelse tydelig. Fremtidig forskning bør ta hensyn til mangfoldet av aktører som har betydning for amerikansk Midtøsten-politikk, heller enn å legge for stor vekt på enkeltaktører som Israel-lobbyen.

Abstract

Independent Power or Follower? The Israel Lobby and U.S. Foreign Policy in the Middle East

In 2007, Mearsheimer and Walt published The Israel Lobby and U.S. Foreign Policy, in which they argue that the U.S. Israel lobby has managed to front its own interests at the cost of U.S. interests. In this article we explore the validity of this argument. We look at examples of American Middle East policy where both the U.S. and Israeli authorities had interests. We observe that the Israel lobby appears more powerful than it really is because U.S. foreign policy interests are often in line with those of Israel and the Israel lobby to begin with. In contrast, in cases where the U.S. and Israel have contradictory interests, the limited influence of the lobby becomes apparent. Future researchers would be well advised to take into account the multiplicity of actors that influence U.S. foreign policy, rather than put too much weight on a single actor like the Israel lobby.

http://www.idunn.no/ts/ip/2013/03/maktfaktor_eller_medloeper_-_en_revidering_av_israel-lobbye

Jakobsen, Isaksen, Skavhaug & Strabac (2013) In Varietate Harmonia?: Intergroup Contact, Group Threat and Ethnic Tolerance in Scandinavian Regions

Jakobsen, Isaksen, Skavhaug & Strabac (2013) In Varietate Harmonia?: Intergroup Contact, Group Threat and Ethnic Tolerance in Scandinavian Regions

Abstract

The issue of immigration is becoming increasingly salient, and has emerged as a prominent political matter in the Scandinavian countries. Using multilevel modelling employing data from the statistical bureaus of Denmark, Norway and Sweden in combination with the latest round of the European Social Survey, the link between the percentage of immigrants in a region and individual's level of ethnic tolerance is examined. Most previous comparative studies of attitudes toward immigration have used European countries as level-2 units. We apply a new approach, investigating immigration at the regional level in these three fairly similar societies. Our findings show that regional diversity is associated with higher tolerance which is in accordance with intergroup contact theory. The relatively small size of immigrant populations together with the presence of post-materialistic values due to a relatively high standard of living makes the Scandinavian countries less receptive to mechanisms associated with group threat theory.

DOI: 10.1163/15718115-02003001

Logstein, Blekesaune & Almås (2013) Physical activity among Norwegian adolescents- a multilevel analysis of how place of residence is associated with health behaviour: the Young-HUNT study

Logstein, Blekesaune & Almås (2013) Physical activity among Norwegian adolescents- a multilevel analysis of how place of residence is associated with health behaviour: the Young-HUNT study

Abstract

Introduction
The purpose of this article is to investigate whether and to what degree participation in physical activity among adolescents is associated with area economic deprivation in the municipality where they live. In the study we took account of aggregated informal social capital at the municipality level and compositional effects due to spatial concentration of individual variables known to be associated with physical activity. These include informal social participation, participation in other cultural activities, and family affluence.

Methods
The study was based on a secondary analysis of data from the Norwegian HUNT study and municipality characteristics from the Norwegian Social Science Data Service ‘Commune Database' from 2006. The sample consisted of 8114 adolescents whose ages ranged from 13 to 19. The explanatory power of the independent variables on the dependent variable was assessed using a multilevel analysis in which individuals comprised the first level and were nested within the municipality level.

Results
The average level of physical activity was not negatively associated with the level of area economic deprivation when we adjusted for informal social participation at the community level. Adjusting for area economic deprivation, we found that informal social participation at the community level was associated with a higher level of participation in physical activity at p< .01.

Conclusion
For adolescents in a given municipality, informal social participation is more strongly associated with a higher level of physical activity than the degree of area economic deprivation. This finding supports our social capital hypothesis, which states that the amount of social capital is strengthening the individual's ability to take part in physical activity.

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Farstad & Rye (2013) Second home owners, locals and their perspectives on rural development

Farstad & Rye (2013) Second home owners, locals and their perspectives on rural development

 Abstract

Dominating strands within the research literature on second homes explain social conflicts between rural hosting and visiting second home populations by describing their differing perspectives on rural development. Such presentations suggest that locals are likely to welcome new developments in order to enhance the economic viability of their rural communities, whereas second home owners advocate conservation of the rural idyll that attracted them in the first place. In this paper, we argue that these simplified differences conceptualised in the contemporary second home research literature are faulty. By analysing 42 qualitative in-depth interviews with second home owners and locals in four Norwegian municipalities, we demonstrate how both locals and second home owners are protective of their rural idyll and, at the very same time, open to rural development. More exactly, locals and second home owners alike generally welcome new activities only when they do not take place in their own vicinity. As such, both categories' interests reflect a "Not in my backyard" (NIMBY) line of logic. Hence, we argue that the major lines of conflict concerning land use in second home municipalities do not run between locals and visitors but between those initiating different kinds of new developments and those appreciating the hitherto existing qualities and appearance of the areas of development localisation. Nevertheless, the influx of second home owners is still influencing the potential for land use conflicts due to the high number of actors present in the same location. In effect, crowding a rural area with second home developments generates more "backyards" and thus guardians of these.

DOI: 

Rye (2013) Mead, Berger & Luckmann og de signifikante andre

Rye (2013) Mead, Berger & Luckmann og de signifikante andre

 

George Herbert Mead (1863–1931) gis ofte æren for begrepet «de signifikante andre». Mead brukte imidlertid ikke dette uttrykket, som ikke finnes i hans hovedverk Mind, Self, and Society (1934). I denne artikkelen viser jeg hvordan feilsiteringen av «de signifikante andre» har festet seg i sosiologifaget, trolig som en følge av blant annet Berger og Luckmanns feilaktige referanser til Mead i The Social Construction of Reality (1966). Tradisjonen med feilsiteringer reflekterer at «de signifikante andre» er svakt teoretisert i dagens sosiologi. Det er spesielt behov for mer nyanserte teorier om hvem «de signifikante andre» er, hvordan de forskjellige aktørgruppene er viktige, og når de er viktige.

Les hele artikkelen i Sosiologisk tidsskrift

Ramet (2013) Memory and identity in the Yugoslav successor states

Ramet (2013) Memory and identity in the Yugoslav successor states

INTRODUCTION
Memory and identity in the Yugoslav successor states

Reading the psychological literature on memory, there is little doubt who plays the leading roles on this stage. The radiant hero in the limelight is Remembering, attracting all attention, support and sympathy. The shady villain is Forgetting, the trouble maker who is lurking behind the scenes, always ready to counter-act Remembering and thwart its achievement. There are various scenarios in which this plot is acted out. Typically, Remembering is forced to use all kinds of tricks to resist the villain's assaults and to guard the treasure – the accumulated wealth of past experience and knowledge. While Remembering strives to defend this precious treasure, maintaining it as untouched as possible, Forgetting never tires of trying to steal and destroy it (or at least to damage or, insidiously, to distort and falsify it). In this way, the conflict about the treasure of the past takes on still another dramatic dimension: it becomes a struggle for truth. (Brockmeier 2002, 15)

Let us start at the beginning, or rather, at a possible beginning, because any act of remembering defines what shall serve as the "beginning" for one's chosen narrative or argument.Of course, in considering the Yugoslav story, we have a choice among several competing "beginnings". We might start the story on 1 December 1918, with the formation of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes or, if one prefers to emphasize the birth of socialist Yugoslavia, on 29 November 1943, when the communist Anti-Fascist Council for the People's Liberation of Yugoslavia, meeting in Jajce, Bosnia, established a nine-member National Committee of Liberation as a de-facto provisional government (see Ramet 2006, 157). Of course, one might even begin "the story of the Yugoslav peoples" with the migration of the still-polytheist Slavic tribes from west of the Urals to the Balkan Peninsula in the seventh-century CE. For purposes of this article, however, the story "begins" on 6 April 1941, when German and Italian troops crossed the border into Yugoslavia, as a preliminary to partition and occupation.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00905992.2013.801419

Aalberg, Blekesaune & Elvestad (2013) Media Choice and Informed Democracy: Toward Increasing News Consumption Gaps in Europe?

Aalberg, Blekesaune & Elvestad (2013) Media Choice and Informed Democracy: Toward Increasing News Consumption Gaps in Europe?

Abstract

It was previously perceived as a citizen's responsibility to follow the news and to keep oneself informed about politics and current affairs. Recently, however, it appears as though a growing number of citizens ignore the information opportunities given to them. Changes in the media environment have given people cross-nationally more of a choice regarding the media diet they prefer. For the American case, Prior has demonstrated that in an era of cable TV and Internet, people more readily remove themselves from political knowledge and political action than previously. In this article, we study how the public's consumption of news versus entertainment has developed over the last decade in countries with significantly different media systems. Is there a general increase in preference for entertainment across Europe, and has the gap between news- and entertainment-seekers increased such as documented by Prior for the U.S. case? Who are the European citizens who remove themselves from news and current affairs in the environment of increased choice? Based on data from five waves of the European Social Survey covering more than thirty European countries from 2002 to 2010, we demonstrate how national context or the media environment moderates the influence of individual-level factors in news consumption.

doi: 10.1177/1940161213485990

Halvorsen & Jakobsen (2013) Democrats, Republicans—or Both? An Empirical Analysis of the Effects of the Composition of State Governments on FDI, 1977–2004

Halvorsen & Jakobsen (2013) Democrats, Republicans—or Both? An Empirical Analysis of the Effects of the Composition of State Governments on FDI, 1977–2004

 

Abstract
Does the partisan composition of state governments in the United States influence the location decisions of foreign multinational companies? This article argues that it does. We contend that partisan differences over state economic development policies still exist. Whereas Republicans tend to prefer an investment-driven (supply-side) growth model, Democrats favor a consumption-driven (demand-side) path to growth. Both sets of policies are of value to foreign direct investment; thus, multinationals do not favor one party over the other. A useful blend of policy measures is sought by foreign firms, making split state government preferable over unified government. Our arguments are comprehensively tested in a time-series cross-section analysis covering the period 1977–2004, with results supporting our claims

http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/03050629.2013.768470

Grønning, Scambler & Tjora (2013) From fatness to badness: The modern morality of obesity

Grønning, Scambler & Tjora (2013) From fatness to badness: The modern morality of obesity

 

Abstract
Obesity (or being overweight) is now considered a by-product of membership of developed societies. Moreover, it is considered a growing ‘global' health problem. This article reports on a small qualitative study of adults who fell into one or other of these categories in Norway in 2010, and who have been faced with decisions about lifestyle versus surgical remedies. This decision making is contextualized and the principal criteria examined. Embodiment, bodywork, self- and social identity, stigma, deviance and issues around the idea of personal responsibility and public health emerge as key themes. The concluding paragraphs commend incorporation of a macro- or social structural perspective to the conceptualization and investigation of obesity.

http://hea.sagepub.com/content/17/3/266.abstract

Bungum & Kvande (2013) The rise and fall of cash for care in Norway: changes in the use of child-care policies

Bungum & Kvande (2013) The rise and fall of cash for care in Norway: changes in the use of child-care policies

 

Abstract
The cash-for-care scheme was introduced in 1998 in Norway during the first period after its introduction, the percentage of users was high at 91 per cent. Since 2005, however, the use has decreased substantially year by year. Thus, the use of cash for care has changed over the 15 years it has existed. In this article we take these changes as our point of departure and analyze more closely what we might call ‘the rise and fall of the cash-for-care scheme' in Norway. Over the last 15 to 20 years, Norway has become a multicultural society and we need to include ethnicity when conducting research in the field of family policy. The focus is therefore on the intersection of gender class, and ethnicity in parents' use of cash for care over this period. Our analysis is based on different sources of data. We have used data from the evaluative program undertaken by the Norwegian Research Council, including two surveys conducted before and after the reform (Gulbrandsen & Hellevik, 1998; Hellevik, 2000), and a qualitative case study focusing on fathers and mothers working in three different workplaces (Bungum et al. 2001). We have also used three other statistical studies which were carried out at two different points in time (Pettersen, 2003; Hirch, 2010; Bakken & Myklebø, 2010). Our findings indicate that cash for care is a scheme that mainly encourages mothers who have low income and a low educational level and who are to a large degree from immigrant backgrounds to remain outside the labor market. By distinguishing between three phases, we have aimed to illustrate how the intersection of gender, class, and ethnicity enters in different ways into both the discourse and the practices connected to the cash-for-care scheme since it was introduced in 1998.

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Midtgård, Vadlamannati & de Soysa (2013) Does the IMF cause civil war? A comment

Midtgård, Vadlamannati & de Soysa (2013) Does the IMF cause civil war? A comment

 

Abstract
The global economic downturn has heightened concerns about intervention by global financial institutions and political stability. One prominently-published article purports to show that signing on to an IMF structural adjustment program (SAP) increases the risk of civil war, Hartzell et al. (International Organization 64:339–56, 2010). The authors claim that IMF SAPs push liberalization, which hurts people badly enough that they foment civil war. We advance the debate by critically examining their theoretical and empirical evidence, particularly questioning their crucial assumptions about the impact of IMF programs on the economic environment in terms of who actually wins and loses from liberalization and who might be in a position to rebel. Using their data, we find that signing on to an IMF program predicts the onset of a civil war negatively if one uses a lower threshold of 25 deaths when defining civil war. These results suggest that the operationalization of the IMF variable as well as the use of largescale civil war (1,000 deaths and above) simply capture the effect of ongoing conflict rather than the effects of liberalization. After extending the time period under study and making only minor changes to operationalization, we find that at no time does IMF
involvement successfully predict the onset of a civil war.
 

DOI 10.1007/s11558-013-9167-z

Jakobsen, De Soysa & Jakobsen (2013) Why do poor countries suffer costly conflict? Unpacking per capita income and the onset of civil war

Jakobsen, De Soysa & Jakobsen (2013) Why do poor countries suffer costly conflict? Unpacking per capita income and the onset of civil war

 

Abstract
Empirical studies on the causes of civil war robustly show that poor countries are more likely to suffer civil war than rich ones. However, the interpretations of this finding differ. The literature proposes three different causal mechanisms: (1) poverty leads to grievances; (2) income proxies the opportunity-cost of rebelling; and (3) income proxies state capacity. Using factor analysis, logistic modeling and multiple imputation, we test which of the three possible explanations can best explain the link between poverty and conflict. We find per capita income to belong to a wealth/poverty dimension, and to have little in common with "pure" measures of grievance and state capacity. Thus our findings support the opportunity-cost argument. The wealth dimension is also shown to be the most important underlying cause of civil war.

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Bjørkhaug & Blekesaune (2013) Development of organic farming in Norway: A statistical analysis of neighbourhood effects

Bjørkhaug & Blekesaune (2013) Development of organic farming in Norway: A statistical analysis of neighbourhood effects

 

Abstract
The organic boom in agriculture at the turn of the new millennium culminated in ambitious political goals for further growth in organic agricultural production and consumption. In Norway, the present goal is to reach a level of 15% organic production and consumption by 2020. So far, the requested shift toward organic farming has not occurred at the anticipated level. Organic farming began in Norway with a few pioneers who questioned the conditions in conventional agriculture. Since the late 1980s, there has been a rise in the number of organic farms from the core 20 or so original farms to approximately 2800 certified organic farms in 2010. While several studies have explored the diffusion of organic farming as an innovation, little research has been carried out to specifically understand the spatial diffusion of organic agriculture. This paper explores spatial diffusion of organic farming in Norway by asking if the level of organic farming in one municipality is influenced by organic farming in its neighbouring municipalities. Spatial analyses are carried out on population, agricultural production and producer data. The dependent variable is the proportion of organic production in Norwegian municipalities (N = 430). Analyses in the paper show a connection between the level of organic production, the population level in the municipalities, and access to consumers. This research also shows a connection between the farm processing of organic products and the level of organic farming. The patterns are of a geographical nature, showing neighbourhood effects in the development of organic farming that are especially strong in particular regions of Norway. The results are discussed in light of previous research on organic farming and Hägerstrands ([1953] 1967) theory of spatial diffusion of innovations.

De Soysa & Vadlammanati (2013) Do pro-market economic reforms drive human rights violations? An empirical assessment, 1981–2006

De Soysa & Vadlammanati (2013) Do pro-market economic reforms drive human rights violations? An empirical assessment, 1981–2006

 

Abstract
Liberals argue that economic policy reforms will benefit most in terms of better access to goods, less inflation and better economic opportunities. Critics of market reforms, among them Marxists, critical theorists, skeptics of globalization as well as a large portion of the NGO community, see the majority as losers from such reform, expecting resistance that would lead to political repression. They suggest that free-market policy reforms are analogous to "swallowing the bitter pill." We make use of the change in the Index of Economic Freedom as a measure of market liberalizing reforms, employing data from a panel of 117 countries for the period from 1981–2006. Our results show a strong positive association between reforms towards more free markets with regard to governments' respect for human rights, controlling for a host of relevant factors, including the possibility of endogeneity. The results are robust in relation to sample size, alternative data and methods, and a sample of only developing countries; and they are substantively quite large. Our results support those who argue that freer markets generate better economic conditions and higher levels of social harmony and peace, and it seems as if getting there is less problematic than people generally think—in fact, halfhearted measures and backsliding that prolong crises could be more dangerous to human rights.

DOI: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11127-011-9847-2

Tiller & Hansen (2013) International regime analyses in the northeast Atlant

Tiller & Hansen (2013) International regime analyses in the northeast Atlantic

 

Abstract
The zooplankton redfeed may need an international management regime in the future. An optimal resource regime from Norway's point of view has already been hypothesized Tiller (J Environ Dev 19 (2):191–214, 2010). We expand on this hypothesis and analyze the regime preferences of other interested states: Russia, Iceland and the EU. These states will all react and respond differently to the advent of a new resource in the Northeast Atlantic and have different policy interests to bring to the negotiation table than the initiator Norway. One cannot analyze international regimes without fully comprehending the perspectives of other actors involved. It is therefore critical to look at the issues and concerns that are likely to arise on the international arena during regime negotiations and develop scenarios that account for the possible events that could materialize at that stage. This could potentially produce a more predictable end scenario in the case of the future redfeed regime, especially for Norway. In explaining this, we sketch four possible future scenarios, and proceed with discussing them in light of the potential preferences of the key actors involved. Given the enticing nature of studying a regime that has not yet materialized, the case of redfeed in the Northeast Atlantic is explored and discussed from the vantage point of actors whose cooperation with Norway is critical for the successful future operationalization of the international management regime for redfeed, namely Russia, Iceland, and the EU. Using regime formation theory and scenario analysis, mapping out the future negotiation stage of the regime formation process is undertaken. The article argues that Norway's role as a driver for the development of this regime will steer the negotiation process and ensure the outcome that is most beneficial for Norway, with Russia acquiescent rather than aggressive.

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Fuchs & Vadlamannati (2013) The Needy Donor: An Empirical Analysis of India’s Aid Motives

Fuchs & Vadlamannati (2013) The Needy Donor: An Empirical Analysis of India’s Aid Motives

 

Summary
With the intension of understanding why poor countries provide aid to other developing countries, we analyze aid commitments by India's Ministry of External Affairs to 125 countries over the 2008–10 period. Our findings are partially in line with our expectations of the behavior of a "needy" donor. Commercial and political self-interests dominate India's aid allocation. We find the importance of political interests to be significantly larger for India than for all donors of the Development Assistance Committee. Moreover, countries that are geographically closer are favored, and countries at a similar developmental stage are more likely to enter India's aid program.

Tiller, Gentry & Richards (2013) Stakeholder driven future scenarios as an element of interdisciplinary management tools; the case of future offshore aquaculture development and the potential effects on fishermen in Santa Barbara, California

Tiller, Gentry & Richards (2013) Stakeholder driven future scenarios as an element of interdisciplinary management tools; the case of future offshore aquaculture development and the potential effects on fishermen in Santa Barbara, California

 

Abstract
The following article discusses how to elicit quantitative stakeholder driven scenarios as an output for use in interdisciplinary policy models using Systems Thinking and Bayesian Belief Network conjointly in a workshop setting. The usefulness of this joint method was tested on a core group of stakeholders that would likely be impacted if offshore aquaculture were to be developed in Santa Barbara, California, namely the commercial fishermen. The workshop elicited several scenarios describing stakeholder perceived notions of how offshore aquaculture could impact their industry. This joint method is a new method of developing future scenarios. These can in turn be used to develop more encompassing and interdisciplinary foresight models, early warning systems, for managers in different management areas. Models can thereby include human perception and comprehensive and quantitative scenarios by delimiting the variable paths toward each stakeholder driven scenario as additional elements in a comprehensive policy foresight recommendation tool.

Publikasjoner 2012

Brandth & Haugen (2012) Farm tourism and dilemmas of commercial activity in the home

Brandth & Haugen (2012) Farm tourism and dilemmas of commercial activity in the home

Abstract
This article aims to analyse the overlap between work and home in farm tourism.When farmers diversify their production into tourism using their homes as a commercial arena for hosting visitors, new challenges regarding boundaries between private and public, home and work arise. The article shows how central aspects of hosting involve inherent dilemmas between the farm as a home and as a site of commercial activities. Moreover, it shows how the boundaries between work and home are managed in order to balance business and a sense of home. Such boundary work consists of attempts at adjusting the product, marking rules and creating separate spaces for home and work, something that produces a more conditional hospitality. The analysis is based on studies of twenty family farms from various districts in Norway. Some of the farms combine tourism and farming while others have altered their production to tourism only. The material includes formal interviews with sixteen women and nineteen men operating the businesses.

DOI: http://www.intellectbooks.co.uk/journals/view-Article,id=14303/

Federico, B., Mackenbach, J.P., Eikemo, TA, & Kunst A.E. (2012). Impact of the 2005 smoke-free policy in Italy on prevalence, cessation and intensity of smoking in the overall population and by educational group

Federico, B., Mackenbach, J.P., Eikemo, TA, & Kunst A.E. (2012). Impact of the 2005 smoke-free policy in Italy on prevalence, cessation and intensity of smoking in the overall population and by educational   group. Addiction, 107 (9), 1677-86.

 

De Soysa & Midford (2012) Enter The Dragon! An Empirical Analysis of Chinese versus US Arms Transfers to Autocrats and Violators of Human Rights, 1989–2006

De Soysa & Midford (2012) Enter The Dragon! An Empirical Analysis of Chinese versus US Arms Transfers to Autocrats and Violators of Human Rights, 1989–2006

Abstract
The rise of China has led to a spate of scholarly and journalistic speculation about the future of a liberal world order. Apparently, the rise of a nondemocratic, Asian rival to US hegemony potentially undermines the growth of democracy throughout the system. Many see a resource-hungry China engaging itself globally out of purely self-interested motives, and Chinese business and aid offer a viable alternative to Western influence. Using the Stockholm Institute for Peace Research's (SIPRI) data on arms transfers since the end of the Cold War, we test the proposition empirically by assessing the nature and strength of Chinese politico-military support, measured as conventional arms transfers, globally and to African regimes. In short, we find that China relative to the United States transfers greater amounts of arms to democracies rather than autocracies, whereas the United States seems to prefer more autocratic regimes, despite rhetoric that claims an ethical foreign policy. The same result holds when we assess this relationship using human rights data. Moreover, Chinese arms transfers to countries suffering civil wars are much lower than the United States'. The findings are robust to the inclusion of several control variables and alternative estimation techniques. The findings show that popular perceptions about China's role in Africa do not match reality, particularly when assessed against the current hegemon's behavior.

Midford (2012) Post-war Japanese realism and strategy toward China: introduction to a mini-special issue of translations

Midford (2012) Post-war Japanese realism and strategy toward China: introduction to a mini-special issue of translations

 

Rye (2012) "Jeg tror jeg er tilfreds", Søkelys på arbeidslivet

Rye (2012) "Jeg tror jeg er tilfreds", Søkelys på arbeidslivet

Sammendrag:
Siden EU/EØS-utvidelsen i 2004 har et stort antall østeuropeiske arbeidere fått jobb på det norske arbeidsmarkedet. De fleste har lønns- og arbeidsvilkår som er dårligere enn gjennomsnittet for norske arbeidstakere – ofte også dårligere enn det norske regelverket tillater. Likevel er mange av de østeuropeiske arbeidstakerne ganske tilfredse med sine arbeidsbetingelser. Denne artikkelen tar utgangspunkt i et kvalitativt datamateriale med østeuropeiske hotellarbeidere i en større norsk by som informanter, og diskuterer nevnte paradoks ut fra mikrososiologiske perspektiver på arbeidsinnvandrernes (a) referanserammer, (b) livs- og karriereperspektiver og (c) selvforståelse som outsidere på arbeidsmarkedet og i det norske velferdssamfunnet. Avslutningsvis uttrykker artikkelen en bekymring for at de østeuropeiske arbeiderne gjennom sin aksept av dårlige lønns- og arbeidsvilkår medvirker til konstruksjonen av segregerte og innvandringsdominerte delarbeidsmarkeder.

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Sandovici, Jakobsen & Strabac (2012) Political Nationalism and Attitudes towards Immigration: The Interaction of Knowledge and Policy, International Journal on Minority and Group Rights

Sandovici, Jakobsen & Strabac (2012) Political Nationalism and Attitudes towards Immigration: The Interaction of Knowledge and Policy, International Journal on Minority and Group Rights

Abstract:
The issue of immigration is highly salient to citizens of industrialised democracies. Globalisation and the emergence of an international human rights regime, among other reasons, led to high levels of immigration to industrialised countries in recent decades. Immigrant-receiving states have shown only limited ability to control the size and composition of their immigrant population. Immigration has therefore emerged as a prominent political issue in practically all economically developed countries, and there are raising concerns over anti-immigration sentiments and nationalist tendencies that seem to be taking hold among modern publics. We argue that anti-immigration attitudes are not merely a response to increased immigration, but rather that these attitudes mirror governments' nationalistic and anti-immigration stance. In addition, people who are interested in politics are expected to be more influenced by their governments' policies than those who show less interest. We use data from the European Social Survey and the Comparative Manifesto Project to test these claims. Results from our multilevel models show that people living in countries where the government is right wing are more opposed to immigration than people living in countries where the government exhibits less right-wing tendencies. The effect of government policy positions is also found to be conditioned by political interest at the individual level.

DOI: //dx.doi.org/10.1163/157181112X639041

Jakobsen & Listhaug (2012) Issue ownership, unemployment and support for government intervention, Work, employment and society

Jakobsen & Listhaug (2012) Issue ownership, unemployment and support for government intervention, Work, employment and society

Abstract:
In this article an examination is made of the association between unemployment and public demand for government intervention in the economy. The main hypothesis is drawn from the theory of issue ownership: public opinion is likely to shift to the left in times of high unemployment combined with a leftist government. Research on issue ownership has typically focused on case studies of particular countries. We extend the discussion to a much larger setting. Relying on data from the International Social Survey Programme from 23 OECD countries in the time period 1985–2007 we find a combined effect of issue ownership and agenda setting. An increase in unemployment leads the public to hold more leftist economic opinions when the government belongs to the left. However, ownership of an issue cannot be guaranteed to last if a party fails to deliver outcomes that are promised and expected from its historical legacy.

DOI:  //dx.doi.org/10.1177/0950017012438574 

Dyrstad (2012) Does civil war breed authoritarian values? An empirical study of Bosnia-Herzegovina, Kosovo and Croatia, Democratization

Dyrstad (2012) Does civil war breed authoritarian values? An empirical study of Bosnia-Herzegovina, Kosovo and Croatia, Democratization

Abstract:
This article analyses how armed conflict affects individual support for liberal values. It is commonly assumed that the consolidation of democracy depends on individual values such as tolerance as well as aspirations of civil and political liberty. For post-conflict societies, consolidating democracy is also a means of reducing the risk of recurring violent conflict. However, democracy has proven to be especially hard to achieve and consolidate in ethnically divided societies. While previous research has centred mainly on institutions and political elites, I expand the focus to also include ordinary citizens. Using survey data from post-war Bosnia-Herzegovina, Kosovo and Croatia, I examine the effect of exposure to violence on a scale of authoritarian values. While the effects are small, the results show that warrelated violence in some cases leads people to embrace authoritarian values.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13510347.2012.688032

Tiller (2012) Regime formation at the Agenda Formation stage analyzed from a futuritic plankton perspective, Ocean & Coastal Management

Tiller (2012) Regime formation at the Agenda Formation stage analyzed from a futuritic plankton perspective, Ocean & Coastal Management

Abstract:
Ameliorating fisheries management is of utmost importance given the vulnerability of fisheries worldwide. International management regimes are imperative as a means to this end. Redfeed is a marine species located on the second to last level on the food web, and is a cornerstone species therein. The role of effective management of this species is of utmost importance to avoid the potential catastrophe associated with its over harvesting. The resource is still not commercially harvested, however, and its management can still be framed before a potential catastrophe occurs. Using regime and scenario theories, the regime formation process at the initial Agenda Formation stage is explored from the perspective of a future commercial harvest of this plankton. The potential of vertical movement from this stage to the next level in the process, the Negotiation stage, is considered from the vantage point of four different scenarios related to the political responses to this potential redfeed fishery in the Northeast Atlantic: Business-as-usual, Quiet Suffocation by the Politically Prioritized Svalbard Fisheries Protection Zone, Institutions; or Death by Climate Change and Improbable-but-devastating. Providing policy makers with these scenarios gives the affected decision maker a wider view and more information about the processes that can change and enhance the given situation and in turn lead to wanted or unwanted situations. It enables them to make better decisions about the given path they are interested in pursuing and which future image they preferred or want. The future is unpredictable, however, and scenarios are only possible futures.

Andrzejewska & Rye (2012) Lost in Translation Space? Migrant Farm Workers in Rural Districts. Mobilities

Andrzejewska & Rye (2012) Lost in Translation Space? Migrant Farm Workers in Rural Districts. Mobilities

Abstract:
In recent decades, theories of transnationalism have emerged as key perspectives for analysis of international migration. Drawing on Glorius and Friedrich's (2006) model of transnationalism, the paper analyses the case of migrant farm labour in rural Norway and demonstrates how the social context of migrants' work influences their building of various kinds of social-capital resources which are crucial for development of transnational space. The paper argues that circularity of migration is not sufficient to instigate fullfledged transculturation and hybrid identity-formation processes. In conclusion, the paper recommends that transnational theory should pay greater attention to the social contexts of migration and observe the limits of the theory's application.

Doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17450101.2012.654996

Spilker (2012) The Network Studio Revisited: Becoming an Artist in Age of "Piracy Cultures". International Journal of Communication

Spilker (2012) The Network Studio Revisited: Becoming an Artist in Age of "Piracy Cultures". International Journal of Communication

Abstract:
The article takes Theberge's (2004) notion of "the Network Studio" and Latour's (2005) notion of "reassembling/disassembling" as a point of departure to investigate the development of home recording and home distribution practices among semi-professional musicians. The central research questions concerns whether these new practices are used to sidestep the traditional career patterns of the music industry. In other words, do they add up to "piracy cultures" (Cardoso & Castells, 2010) that challenge and threaten established social orders? The study reveals how the rise of the networked home studio has altered the initial phases of the processes of music making in important ways. However, the musicians did not perceive the new practices of the home studio as a substitute for professional studios and traditional ways of making a career, but rather as a preparation. The study suggests that the developing practices of the home studio should be understood as the formation of "pre-distribution networks"—not actually side stepping, but eventually leading into the professional network of the music industry. Thus, the suspected piracy is still looming at best.

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Aalberg, Iyengar & Messing (2012) Who is "Deserving" Immigrants? An Experimental Study of Norwegian Attitudes. Scandinavian Political Studies

Aalberg, Iyengar & Messing (2012) Who is "Deserving" Immigrants? An Experimental Study of Norwegian Attitudes. Scandinavian Political Studies

Abstract:
Previous research demonstrates that opposition to immigration increases when immigrant groups are seen as economically non-viable and burdened with distinctive and unassimilable cultural practices. However, no research to date has investigated the parallel relationship between attributes of individuals and willingness to admit these individuals as legal immigrants. This study examines Norwegians' evaluations of individual immigrants. Using an experimental design, specific attributes of immigrants are manipulated, making them appear more or less likely to make an economic contribution and more or less likely to assimilate into Norwegian culture. It is found that the decision to admit individuals is predominantly influenced by the immigrant's economic background. Norwegians are especially supportive of highly skilled immigrants. The immigrant's race is also relevant, but the effect of racial cues varies between men and women. Immigrants with an Afrocentric appearance are more likely to be rejected by men, but accepted by women. The article recommends that immigration researchers measure public support for immigration at both the policy and individual immigrant levels.

Tiller, Brekken & Bailey (2012) Norwegian aquaculture expansion and Integrated Coastal Zone Management

Tiller, Brekken & Bailey (2012) Norwegian aquaculture expansion and Integrated Coastal Zone Management

Abstract:
ICZM (Integrated Coastal Zone Management) is a decision-making process for sustainable use, development and protection of coastal marine areas and their resources, in continuous realization. Norway is currently dependent upon the commitment and motivations of the municipalities to fulfill its ICZM initiatives. These communities are lacking epistemic communities that can help prevent the simmering conflicts surrounding aquaculture expansion, as demonstrated by media data from 1984–2010. With the forthcoming harvest of the zooplankton redfeed in Norwegian and surrounding waters, the Aquaculture industry could be in a situation of expanded feed resources, which would ensure its expansion if localities are made available. This would also be in line with the Norwegian government's commitment to the expansion of this industry. A government-endorsed growth of the Aquaculture industry will add fuel to these simmering conflicts concerning the use of the eco-system of collective goods and services available along national coastline in Norway for Aquaculture purposes. The suggestions from the recently released report from the Select Committee appointed by the Ministry of Fisheries and Coastal Affairs in Norway on Effective and Sustainable Area Use in the Aquaculture Industry cab be an aid to supporting the growth of epistemic communities and a subsequent successful national ICZM implementation, thereby paving the way for a conflict-less coastal area management.

Grøttum & Aalberg (2012) De vanskelige nyhetene. Norsk statsvitenskapelig tidsskrift

Grøttum & Aalberg (2012) De vanskelige nyhetene. Norsk statsvitenskapelig tidsskrift

Sammendrag:
I de siste tiårene har mediene blitt hovedscenen for politisk informasjon og debatt. Det har funnet sted en markant økning i antall mediekanaler, nyhetssendinger og artikler om politikk. Men hvor forståelig er egentlig de politiske nyhetene for publikum og velgere? I denne artikkelen argumenterer vi for at journalister benytter en teknikk som favoriserer de mest kunnskapsrike når de dekker valgkamper og andre politiske forhold. Ved å bruke en kvantitativ innholdsanalyse av to nasjonale aviser og to nasjonale nyhetsprogrammer på TV undersøker vi nyhetsdekningen under valgkampen som ledet frem til stortingsvalget i 2009. Formålet med studien er å undersøke hvor mye forkunnskaper publikum og velgere trenger for å forstå den politiske nyhetsdekningen.

Vi finner at en betydelig andel av nyhetsdekningen blir presentert på en slik måte at den kan virke ekskluderende på de som har lite kunnskap om politikk fra før. Denne presentasjonen er delvis resultatet av en omfattende bruk av ekspertkilder, men skyldes også journalistenes egen oppfatning av hvilken forkunnskap publikum innehar.

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Hovden (2012) Discourses and strategies for the inclution of woman in sport - the case of Norway. Sport in Society

Hovden (2012) Discourses and strategies for the inclution of woman in sport - the case of Norway. Sport in Society

Abstract:
Norway is seen around the world as a champion of gender equality policy. This paper explores how Norwegian sport has framed, negotiated and understood gender as policy issue during the last decades. It focuses on dominant gender political discourses and strategies and how shifting gender policies has been influenced by internal institutional conditions as well as by public discourses and policies on gender. The empirical basis derives mainly from previous studies, as well as relevant policy documents. The theoretical framework is mainly rooted in an understanding of how gender as a dichotomy and a power relation operates and is constructed. The analyses of shifting gender policies trace a development from rights- and justice-oriented discourses and strategies towards more utility- and difference-oriented discourses, and show how the struggle for the equal inclusion of women has been and still is a contested terrain.

DOI: 10.1080/17430437.2012.653201

Rasmussen & Håpnes (2012) Permanent Temporariness? Changes in Social Contracts. Nordic Journal of Working Life Studies

Rasmussen & Håpnes (2012) Permanent Temporariness? Changes in Social Contracts. Nordic Journal of Working Life Studies

Abstract:
Many sociologists have argued that work no longer plays the central role in contemporary life experience because we have entered an age of insecurity in relation to employment, and knowledge workers are often pictured as egoistical portfolio workers who are only interested in their careers and no longer loyal to their employers. Cappelli (1999) on the other hand argues that more insecure employment relations is a result of employers' strategy to buy workers rather than offering them long-term relations.

Using case studies from seven different knowledge work contexts in Norway, this article argues that more temporary employment relations is not the result of career-seeking portfolio workers, but of changes in employment practices of their employers. These are not primarily changes in the formal employment contracts from permanent to temporary employment, but in the social contracts as they are practiced by the employers and experienced by the knowledge workers in the different contexts of knowledge work. The reason for more temporary relations was not because work does not matter for knowledge workers. On the contrary, we found that they accepted insecure conditions because work mattered and because they were eager to take on new tasks, learn the trade in new fields, and show that they were able to do the job. When they left their employer, it was because they were not able to do a good job in their positions or because they were increasingly directly exposed to an insecure market that signaled that they were not profitable (enough) for their employer. Although changes in employment practices by the employers toward more short-term relations are not caused by disloyal portfolio workers, these practices may produce the problem of disloyal workers who have to secure their employment in the labor market.

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Skavhaug og Brandth (2012) Gårdsturisme på hjemmesider: Trender, blikk og paradokser. Sosiologisk tidsskrift

Skavhaug og Brandth (2012) Gårdsturisme på hjemmesider: Trender, blikk og paradokser. Sosiologisk tidsskrift

Sammendrag:
Denne studien undersøker hjemmesidene til naturbaserte gårdsturismevirksomheter, og hvordan gårdenes selvpresentasjon møter nye turismetrender. Dagens trender er preget av et «romantisk» fremfor et «masseturisme»-blikk, ifølge begrepene til Urry (2002). Gårdsturisme tilbyr produkter og opplevelser som oppfyller disse ønskene, og selger det autentiske, tradisjonelle og særegne. Tre paradokser kommer til uttrykk på hjemmesidene. Ved å analysere dem, diskuterer vi hvordan det er vanskelig å unngå å iscenesette det ekte i turismesammenheng, at det er vanskelig å markedsføre det tradisjonelle uten å koble det til moderne verdier og komfort, og at det unike gjennomgår standardiseringsprosesser.

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